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8
votes
1answer
373 views

Who started calling the matrix multiplication “multiplication”?

As I searched for linear algebra, I found it odd that the linear map composition corresponds to the multiplication of matrices. Considering the intuition that the repetition of addition is ...
0
votes
0answers
46 views

Who first wrote the eigenvalue/eigenvector equation? [duplicate]

Who first wrote the eigenvalue/eigenvector equation $$Ax=\lambda x,$$ where $A$ is a linear operator and $x,\lambda$ the corresponding eigenvectors, eigenvalues?
0
votes
0answers
47 views

Why was it necessary to define the “Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics”?

Historically, why was it necessary to define the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics after defining the other Laws? In our current understanding of science, the way we study it in schools, it seems obvious. ...
2
votes
1answer
78 views

When has the notion of “programming language for machines” emerged?

Nowadays, it seems just common sense to write a program in a high-level programming language and let it be compiler (or interpreted) into machine code to run a computer. However, when did the ...
5
votes
2answers
66 views

What is the history behind defining temperature as measure of hotness?

I know that when two bodies of different temperature are kept in contact "heat" flows from hotter body to colder. But how did anyone know that it is the "hotness" that flows, one could have said that ...
0
votes
1answer
41 views

How did Carnot come up with the idea of Carnot Engine being the most efficient engine?

I am not asking the proof of why the Carnot Engine is the most efficient engine. I wish to know the history of the development of idea of the most efficient engine. I wish to know how Carnot came up ...
0
votes
0answers
35 views

How did Carnot come up with the idea of Carnot Engine being the most efficient engine? [duplicate]

I am not asking the proof of why the Carnot Engine is the most efficient engine. I wish to know the history of the development of idea of the most efficient engine. I wish to know how Carnot came ...
4
votes
1answer
108 views

Alexander Grothendieck's “stolen” correspondance in 1985?

On the website that now displays the part of Grothendieck's archives that had been held at the University of Montpellier, it is mentioned that: Dans une lettre adressée à Monsieur Lefranc datée du ...
3
votes
0answers
68 views

What was worldwide supply of disk storage in 1969?

I'd prefer a year-by-year graph, something like (not necessarily the "demand", just "supply")...     https://www.statista.com/statistics/751749/worldwide-data-storage-capacity-and-demand/ ...
2
votes
1answer
48 views

When was spin of subatomic particles other than the electron discovered?

The idea of a spin angular momentum was first proposed in a 1925 publication by George Uhlenbeck and Samuel Goudsmit to explain hyperfine splitting in atomic spectra. At what time was it measured ...
2
votes
1answer
78 views

Einstein praising Sophus Lie

p. 153 of Raúl M. Falcón Ganfornina and Juan Núñez Valdés, “Mathematical Foundations of Santilli Isotopies,” trans. Alan Aversa, Algebras, Groups, and Geometries 32 (2015): 135–308. quotes (but does ...
3
votes
1answer
146 views

Collection of open problems in Partial differential equations

Except Navier-Stokes equation, are there any other interesting open problems in partial differential equations? I want to know the collection of problems, which are easy to understand but ...
1
vote
0answers
42 views

When was the first quarter first used for moon phase?

For this doesn't make sense - we see one half of moon, not one quarter (at least compared to full moon).
0
votes
0answers
63 views

How does the concept of centre of mass came to existence?

I am wondering as how does the concept of centre of mass came into being. Considering the usefulness of the concept how were the physicist able to define such a quantity. I mean was it just trial and ...
5
votes
1answer
161 views

Do North Koreans use Latin letters in their equations?

Do North Koreans use Latin (and Greek) letters in their equations? On the one hand, being such an isolationist country, I wouldn't be surprised if they used the Korean alphabet (조선글) in their ...
3
votes
1answer
52 views

When was the inverse quadratic interpolation method first used?

Do you know anything about it? I couldn't really find something useful on web.
6
votes
1answer
259 views

Where are Galois's notes?

There are a number of photos of bits of Galois's notes floating around online, such as here and here. But where are they, physically? I'm hoping what remained of them wasn't tossed out once photos ...
8
votes
1answer
431 views

Historical origin of magnetic monopoles

There are two related historical questions that I'm trying to find answers to: Who was the first to introduce the concept of magnetic monopoles? Griffiths in his textbook Introduction to ...
2
votes
1answer
87 views

What is the source of this quote by Einstein on wave–particle duality?

I'm writing a paper which involves a lot of quantum mechanics. As a result of this, I'm finding it necessary to cite the likes of Einstein, Born and Jordan. Particularly in the case of Einstein, due ...
2
votes
0answers
161 views

Writing functions on the right

In group theory, writing functions on the right is a common, though not universal practice. Thus, given mappings $f$, $g$ and group element $\alpha$, one might write $\alpha f$ and $\alpha (f \circ ...
4
votes
2answers
156 views

What were the applications of conic sections before Kepler?

When recently asked for a practical application of parabolas, I responded by talking about objects in free-fall. Afterwards as I was re-thinking this conversation it occurred to me that an object in ...
3
votes
2answers
259 views

When did it become a mainstream stereotype that physicists hate philosophy?

Question I'm searching for the origin of the stereotype (regardless of validity) that physicists hate philosophy? This opinion seems to be more mainstream in the public domain. I do concede they are ...
1
vote
0answers
88 views

Did Romans know formulae?

I read a previous question on Roman engineers and I was surprized that nobody referred to the Pantheon: its dome is an unrivalled wonder of architecture. Roads and aqueducts can be built without ...
2
votes
0answers
76 views

Did Heisenberg defend that Germany should rule Europe?

The following has been attributed to the German physicist Werner Heisenberg: History legitimizes Germany to rule Europe and later the world. Only a nation that rules ruthlessly can maintain itself. ...
6
votes
0answers
49 views

Spirals as calendrical representations

A recent work proposed that the double spiral motif found at Newgrange (ca. 3200 BC) is a calendrical representation. Looking south the northern peoples observed that the arc traced by the sun widens ...
0
votes
0answers
30 views

How did Gauss and Lagrange derive Gauss law of Electrostatics

On Wikipedia, these two pages are mentioned :Lagrange and Gauss however I am an English speaker and can not comprehend any of the one, can someone provide the translated pages or shortly their line of ...
4
votes
0answers
53 views

How did the terms stress and strain come to describe two different things?

In physics, stress essentially captures forces in a body, where as strain captures displacements. Two dimensionally very different concepts. If you look it up in a thesaurus, stress and strain are ...
1
vote
1answer
74 views

Why were mathematicians interested in tangents ( before calculus was discovered)? ( On the origin of differential calculus)

I think it is often said that one great motivation for the invention of calculus was to have a tool allowing to calculate the slope of a tangent to a curve C at a given point P, and even, to find the ...
1
vote
0answers
65 views

Italian Mathematics

After reading this question, I remembered seeing on our department webpage somewhere that for PhD studies one must show a competency in either German, French, or Russian, but Italian was acceptable ...
4
votes
2answers
207 views

substantiating claimed Fourier quote about “an arbitrarily capricious graph”

There is a quote fairly widely attributed to Fourier, but I can't substantiate it. That is, I can't verify that he actually said or wrote it (in any language). Can anyone help me out? Here is the ...
2
votes
1answer
75 views

Where does $M$ for expected value in Russian papers come from?

In modern papers in statistics, it is common to use the sybmol $E[X]$ to refer to the expectation of a random variable $X$. While reading (a translated version of) "Convergence Rate of Nonparametric ...
6
votes
1answer
405 views

What was the motive for inventing Gröbner bases?

How did professor Buchberger discover Gröbner (Groebner) bases for polynomial ideals? What was the problem(s) that lead to such a discovery?
2
votes
0answers
101 views

Was Richard Feynman really awarded a patent for a nuclear Airplane and Rocket?

I've been re-reading "Surely you're Joking Mr. Feynman", and at one point he talks about how at Los Alamos they were asked to write down any idea, no matter how obvious involving nuclear technology, ...
1
vote
2answers
67 views

Who discovered or predicted an electron g factor of circa 2?

I'm writing a physics article with significant historical content, and I'm struggling to find something. Forgetting about the anomalous magnetic dipole moment for a minute, the electron's g factor is ...
3
votes
1answer
165 views

What is the origin of the concept of reduced mass?

I am looking for the origin of the concept of reduced mass as used in vibrational spectroscopy e.g. vibration of a diatomic molecule. Most of the texts simply define reduced mass as the sum of the ...
0
votes
0answers
28 views

History of Path algebras

I want some references that point the inventor of Path algebras and history/evolution of these algebras from the first idea. If possible. I tried to search in many different places, but all times, ...
2
votes
1answer
57 views

Glass ball drop experiment

Several years ago, I remember reading about an experiment, and I thought it was in Newton's Principia, so the experiment was conducted in that time frame. The experiment involved timing the fall of a ...
3
votes
1answer
69 views

Where to get more biographical information about Fritz Peter?

Fritz Peter (1899–1949) is known mainly as one of the authors of the Peter-Weyl theorem. This theorem appears in a paper (Die Vollständigkeit der primitiven Darstellungen einer geschlossenen ...
5
votes
1answer
84 views

When did non-SI double prefixes go out of use?

In old physics and engineering publications from the 1950s or so, it's common to see non-SI "double prefixes", such as a "millimicrosecond pulse", or a "10 micromicrofarad" capacitor. These units are ...
1
vote
1answer
54 views

How was it determined that the photoelectric effect is independent of the intensity of light?

How as light intensity measured or determined around 1900? For example, when it was determined that the photoelectric effect was independent of the intensity of the light beam, but rather that it ...
1
vote
0answers
61 views

Given Wigners sympathies, did he actually do anything concrete for the 'negro' and the 'red man'? [closed]

In Wigners autobiography, which actually wasn't written by him, but was written by a colleague after interviewing him over a period of two years, he writes about when he first emigrated to the USA. It ...
4
votes
3answers
170 views

Did anyone mention the possibility of antimatter before 1928?

In 1932 positron and annihilation were discovered, but in 1928 Dirac had provided a formula allowing for the positron Did anyone between that date and the discovery of electron ever imagine or ...
-3
votes
1answer
89 views

What was the work of Robert Muchielli's, a French psychologist, role in the Rwandan Genocide? [closed]

I read recently in an in-depth book-length study by an investigative journalist on the Rwandan Genocide that the work of the French psychologist, Robert Muchielli, was implicated in organised ...
2
votes
1answer
85 views

When did the idea of thoughts occuring in the human head originate?

The early reference to the brain is found in Edwin Smith Papyrus The Edwin Smith Papyrus, an ancient Egyptian medical treatise written in the 17th century BC, contains the earliest recorded ...
2
votes
1answer
50 views

What is Leroy Grumman Medal won by theoretical physicist Kenneth G. Wilson?

I happened to find that one of the most important inventors of the renormalization group, Kenneth G. Wilson, won the Leroy Randle Grumman Award Medal in 1986, 4 years after his Nobel prize. Details in ...
3
votes
1answer
76 views

Did Jacobi invent the Hungarian algorithm for the assignment problem over a century before Kőnig and Egerváry?

Wikipedia says: In 2006, it was discovered that Carl Gustav Jacobi had solved the assignment problem in the 19th century, and the solution had been published posthumously in 1890 in Latin. The ...
3
votes
1answer
123 views

How did $SU(2)$ came into physics?

It is natural for physicists to consider the group $SO(3)$. Presumably, $SU(2)$ came into physics because of quantum mechanics. How did people realize that when studying rotation of a physical system, ...
4
votes
1answer
71 views

Is there a record of how Newton built his telescope?

Did Newton write down his process of building a reflector telescope? Even with modern knowledge and technology, building one is no easy task so I'm curious of exactly what Newton did.
2
votes
1answer
155 views

Where did Mac Lane say he saw Hitler and wished that he had a gun so he could have shot him?

In Saunders Mac Lane's autobiography he described how he visited, I think Königsberg, then the centre of mathematics in Germany. He also reported he that he saw Hitler somewhere and that he wished ...
0
votes
1answer
101 views

What is the ancient cosmic canon of proportion and its role in the history of science?

Who had direct inside knowledge of the canon through the alleged secret oral tradition? Some possible examples that have been alluded to include Pythagoras, Plato, Euclid, Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, ...

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