# All Questions

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### What's the early history of the "inner qantum number"?

Pais in his "Inward Bound" describes the early history of spin. He tells us that Goudsmit and Uhlenbeck interpreted Pauli's "doubled valuedness" as spin, while in turn Pauli re-...
158 views

### Are there any well known mathematicians who were fascists?

I only recently learned that Pascual Jordan, a well known physicist, with significant contributions to the development of early quantum mechanics was a paid up member of the Nazi Party. He in fact ...
59 views

### What is the connection between dialetheism and Wittgenstein's logical atomism?

Wittgenstein's Tractatus, from my layman's reading of it, is about logical atomism. However, I have recently come across one comment here by one user here - Conifold - who claims that Wittgenstein was ...
1 vote
40 views

### What is the origin of the name "degeneracy" pressure and "degenerate" Fermi gas?

What is the origin of the name "degeneracy" pressure and "degenerate" Fermi gas? I was trying to find the first paper that used the term "degenerate/degeneracy" to ...
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### Were the Euler-Bernoulli beam bending equations used in the design of the Eiffel Tower?

On Wikipedia, I read that the Euler-Bernoulli equations on beam-bending were used in the design of the Eiffel Tower: It was first enunciated circa 1750, but was not applied on a large scale until the ...
1 vote
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### Third law of motion before Newton?

Are there any traces of the third law of motion before Newton's Principia? wiki says Newton arrived at his set of three laws incrementally. In a 1684 manuscript written to Huygens, he listed four ...
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98 views

### Why was the idea of "field" introduced?

I read in my Physics textbook that the notion of Electric fields are useful "when we have to deal with time dependent Electromagnetic phenomenon since no information can travel faster than light&...
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### Why was it difficult to initially phrase compactness?

From beginnings of topology, it was clear that the closed interval $\left[a,b \right]$ of the real line had a certain property that was crucial for proving such theorems as the maximum value theorem ...
1 vote
63 views

### Usage of "sphere" as ball's surface vs as ball itself

In everyday English, "sphere" means a round object. People will think of the insides as part of the sphere. In Mathematics it specifically means the surface of the ball. How did the ...
• 121
80 views

### Is there any book dealing with the history of both astronomy and geometry?

I am preparing an introductory course on the history of astronomy and geometry for intermediate students. The intention is to teach Copernican heliocentrism, Kepler's laws of planetary motion & ...
937 views

### Did John von Neumann solve any unsolved problem in mathematics?

I have searched and examined legendary stories of the problem-solving skills of von Neumann in mathematics. With George Polya With Dantzig Maybe there are other stories showing that he is a great ...
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1 vote
111 views

### What is the difference between Newton's definitions and axioms?

What is the difference between definition and axiom? For instance, Newton's Definition 1 reads: (Cohen p. 403) Quantity of matter is a measure of matter that arises from its density and volume ...
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### Who coined the name "cosmological constant"?

I am aware that Albert Einstein first added the $\Lambda$-term to his field equations in his 1917 paper "Cosmological considerations in the general theory of relativity" (german: "...
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### Looking for a book about "mysteries of the universe"

I used to have a book that traced the history of books which had titles like "secrets of the universe explained", "secrets of chemistry exlained", or "secrets of magic ...
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3k views

### Did most or just few physicists think in 1900 that there was nothing important left to discover?

For example, the whole microscopic world was unknown - isn't that a fundamental problem even bigger than the "two clouds" to solve? They could regard atoms, electrons and other discovered ...
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372 views

### Old unsolved questions in mathematics

John Stillwell, in his textbook on arithmetic cites Erdos: As the great Hungarian problem-solver Paul Erdos liked to point out, if you can think of an open problem that is more than 200 years old, ...
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### Who is/was R. Alter, who reported 1375298099 can be expressed as the sum of 3 fifth powers in 2 different ways?

David Wells, in his entertaining but non-scholarly Curious and Interesting Numbers (1986, 2 ed. 1997) reports that the positive integer $1 \, 375 \, 298 \, 099$ can be expressed as the sum of $3$ ...
• 1,063
796 views

### The First Published book on Algebraic Topology

As far as I know, according to google, Eilenberg, Steenrod's book: Foundations of Algebraic Topology was published in 1952, and Spanier's book: Algebraic Topology was published in 1966. My Questions ...
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111 views

### What motivated scientists to define quantities at a point?

We know that quantities can be defined at a point. Let's take density for instance. If we take a volume in some quantity of matter and keep on shrinking it to a point where we can assign a uniform ...
130 views

### What was the pre-Renaissance proto-perspective scaling technique for painting square tiled floors?

I read once (I don't remember where exactly) about an early technique (Early Renaissance) to draw a square tiling floor in perspective. The next row in the drawing is done multiplying the previous one ...
58 views

### When was Lipschitz equivalence first attributed to Lipschitz or did Lipschitz formulate it himself?

In his book Introduction to Metric and Topological Spaces, author Wilson A Sutherland in explaining the equivalence of metrics invoked the definition: Two metrics $d_1, d_2$ on a set $X$ will be ...
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### Who was A.M. Nesbitt, the eponym of Nesbitts Inequality?

Nesbitt's Inequality can be found all over the internet: $$\frac{a}{b+c}+\frac{b}{a+c}+\frac{c}{a+b}\geq\frac{3}{2}$$ This appears to have been first published in 1902 in Education Times, by A.M. ...
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1 vote
49 views

### Why and when was the kinetic theory of gases generalized to fluids?

I've been reading about kinetic theory of gases, which only deals with gases. I know that the lattice Boltzmann method, which is commonly used to simulate fluid flows, finds its origin in the kinetic ...
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1 vote
53 views

### Did Halley, Wren and Hooke use $a=v^2/r$ to infer the inverse square law?

I'm reading Richard Conn Henry's article called "Circular Motion." In it he states that in his De vi Centrifuga Huygens discovered the formula $a=v^2/r$ and that Edmund Halley, Christopher ...
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