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20 views

Incommensurables and their effects on ratios

I am currently reading "The History of Mathematics" by Uta C. Merzbach. I'm confused on the significance and the disruption caused by the discovery of incommensurable numbers. I get that all ...
0
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0answers
17 views

Not able to understand "female seed" in Galen work?

I ask this Question yesterday, and I have also read the Journal paper provided in answer, but I am more confused than Galen here, why we are not able to understand what Galen has Idea about the female ...
1
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2answers
325 views

Where can I find Grothendieck's letter of resignation from Bourbaki?

I encountered Grothendieck's resignation letter from Bourbaki along with its English translation not too long ago on the web, but for now it seems it's nowhere to be found. I've scoured through the ...
2
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1answer
70 views

What is "female seed" in Galen's work?

On the last page (page 84) of Anthony Preus's paper$^\star$ on Galen's criticism of Aristotle's Conception Theory, the author writes that Galen discussing the second book of "On Seed", which ...
3
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0answers
71 views
+50

Diffraction pattern of Michelson's echelon

Has anyone used Michelson's echelon (pictured below), a very famous type of diffraction grating in the 1920s? I am wondering how did the diffraction image look like from this type of transmission ...
2
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1answer
94 views

Who is Donald Fisk?

In stochastic calculus, the name Stratonovich appears all over the place. However, even though Donald Fisk supposedly obtained similar results, his name appears nowhere. Who was Donald Fisk? I cannot ...
3
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0answers
36 views

Nicollet and the notions of systematic and random errors

I recently read Ken Alder's "The measure of all things" about the first steps of the metric system definition. The project described in the book was the measure the meridian arc between ...
1
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1answer
83 views

What was Einstein's first publication of the final form of general relativity?

What was Einstein's first published exposition of his final form of general relativity, be it a scientific article or a book? I've been googling the answer for hours now, with no luck, really. The ...
-1
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1answer
84 views

What led to the formula $W=\vec{F} \cdot \overrightarrow{d s}$? [closed]

For me the concept of energy in physics is the least intuitive one as in all the books on Physics that I have read so far. The concept of energy have been the least intuitive one as I cannot ...
1
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1answer
104 views

Was there ever a word for 24 like "dozen" for 12? [closed]

The English language has more than one word for 12 (twelve, dozen) and 12^2 (one hundred and forty-four, gross), but has there ever been a word for 2*12 other than twenty-four? I would also be ...
13
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2answers
2k views

Who was the first to hypothesise that gravity from one mass causes the spacetime around another mass to curve?

Was it Einstein? Or was there someone before him to hypothesise this?
3
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0answers
92 views

What were some historically important Fermi estimates in the history of science?

What were some back-of-the-envelope estimates that scientists made where the result of the estimate was important to either the intellectual development of the field or had significant social ...
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0answers
66 views

Who introduced the difference between magnetic fields in matter? $\mathbf H$ vs $\mathbf B$

In magnetism, there are two different magnetic fields, that I will simply call $\mathbf B$ and $\mathbf H$. The distinction is not always clear. In experiments $\mathbf H$ is the applied field while $\...
2
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0answers
100 views

What is the significance of Gauss-Weierstrass's derivation of "Al functions"?

In a fragment entitled "inversion of the elliptic integral of the first genus" (Gauss's werke, volume 8, p. 96-97), Gauss inverts the general elliptic integral of the first kind: he writes $\...
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0answers
69 views

When and how did signal processing reach the core of functional analysis?

Functional analysis and signal processing have a strong bond and I am trying to understand how and when it all started. Technically, signal processing is heavily based on Fourier analysis, which helps ...
14
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3answers
5k views

Historical example of research papers being misinterpreted due to poor wording and creating controversy?

Is there any example of major controversy in the scientific community caused due to poor wording and/or misinterpretation of words?
1
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0answers
74 views

Historical example of research papers being misinterpreted due to poor wording and creating controversy? [duplicate]

Is there any example of major controversy in the scientific community caused due to poor wording and/or misinterpretation of words?
2
votes
1answer
98 views

Who first proposed the idea of "resolution of the identity"?

Who first proposed the idea of "resolution of the identity" as used in the functional calculus of self-adjoint operators? Was it von Neumann? In Japanese, it translates as "resolution ...
6
votes
1answer
163 views

Why was solving polynomial equations historically considered so interesting?

From reading a few accounts of the unsolvability of the quintic, I am told that, e.g., there were public contests in which people competed to solve polynomial equations, and that over the course of ...
0
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0answers
46 views

Which scientist(s) first measured the elementary charge and how did they do it? [duplicate]

I would be grateful if anyone could shed some light on these questions. Which scientist(s) first measured the elementary charge? If it wasn't measured in a straightforward experimental setting, and ...
-1
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1answer
77 views

In physics, how are two quantities found to be proportional to each other? [closed]

For instance, force was discovered to be proportional to mass and acceleration. How are these proportional relationships discovered and proven to be true?
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0answers
71 views

Tycho Brahe and the distance to the fixed stars

How far away did Tycho Brahe estimate that the fixed stars were? In multiples of our sun I imagine!
0
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1answer
48 views

What is the difference between caloric and heat?

What is the difference between caloric and heat? Is there a difference?
1
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0answers
47 views

What did Copernicus and Tycho Brahe actually contend about stellar parallax? [duplicate]

It's often stated that Tycho Brahe objected to Copernicus' heliocentric model on the basis that, if Earth were revolving around the Sun, stellar parallax would be observable, due to the changing ...
1
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0answers
91 views

Are there examples where interpretivist findings have been confirmed by (post-)positivist methodology?

Social sciences, especially sociology, embrace a distinction between interpretivism 1 and (post-)positivism 2. Some social scientist embrace one method over the other and some speak in favor of both. ...
-1
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0answers
85 views

Who first popularized the term "proof without words"?

Speaking as an outsider, the formalist philosophy of mathematics appears to structure most mathematical endeavors since the early 20th century, whether or not most mathematicians would call themselves ...
1
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2answers
173 views

Roughly when did it become accepted by the western scientific community that human space flight could be possible in the future?

Safe human travel into space had to have become scientifically accepted as plausible long before any nations managed to successfully pull it off (and unsafe or one-way human travel likely earlier than ...
5
votes
2answers
2k views

When did they begin to make left and right shoes?

In the memoirs of the Polish mathematician Hugo Steinhaus ("Mathematician for all seasons", vol. I, English translation, Springer, 2015) he recollects a conversation with Henri Lebesgue in ...
-3
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0answers
134 views

Why did Newton invent Calculus?

There are so many articles based on this. I want to know more opinions on this. Newton was a great guy who not only invented Calculus but also started a branch of physics called Mechanics. I want to ...
1
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1answer
144 views

Abel-Runge lemma [closed]

I read recently that there exists an Abel-Runge lemma. What is it? Google does not give an answer. I know about Abel's lemma (the summation by parts) and the Runge-Kutta method but I have never heard ...
5
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0answers
83 views

What technology was used to determine the shape of the blackbody spectrum at the 19th century?

The shape of the blackbody radiation spectrum was known in the 19th century from experimental measurements, and before the theoretical discovery of Planck's law. At those times, how did people manage ...
2
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0answers
69 views

Who established the current standard demonstration of Euler-Lagrange equation in calculus of variations?

Who established the current standard(*) demonstration of Euler-Lagrange equations in calculus of variations, that is, $\displaystyle\frac{\partial f}{\partial y}-\frac{d}{dx}\frac{\partial f}{\partial ...
1
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1answer
70 views

The Rejection of Solid Orbs by Geo-Heliocentric (Tychonic) model of the solar system

Some sources (modern sources, and Kepler himself) claim that in his Geo-Heliocentric (Tychonic) model, Tycho Brahe saw that the orbs of the Sun and Mars intersect, and this was one of the reasons ...
1
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0answers
82 views

Luis Miramontes helped enable the sexual revolution. Why isn’t he better known? [closed]

Why, then, did Miramontes remain an obscure figure? He was a student at a time when science was especially hierarchical. And the fact that Searle beat Syntex to market cut Mexico — and Miramontes — ...
1
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0answers
122 views

The exclamation mark over a relation symbol

My old linear-algebra teacher, whom I can no longer ask, wrote on a black board an exclamation mark over the binary symbol of a logical formula, the main symbol of which is that binary symbol, to say ...
3
votes
1answer
86 views

Reference request for Gauss's original discovery of the special property of the $j$ function

In Interchapter VII of his biography of Gauss, W.K. Buhler describes Gauss's discovery of one of the important properties that characterize the $j$ invariant (Klein's absolute invariant; Gauss called ...
5
votes
2answers
464 views

What is the evidence for the existence of Geber?

In an unrelated question, some users started arguing about the existence of Geber (Jabir ibn Hayyan - جابر بن حيّان) from 806−816 AD and pseudo-Geber (probably from 13th-14th century). This ...
0
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0answers
41 views

Historicity of Euclid. Looking for the references of Euclid in ancient texts that has survived [duplicate]

The general consensus is that Euclid was a real historical figure. Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euclid concludes on the hypothesis that Euclid was not a real person, "This hypothesis ...
-1
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0answers
80 views

Why did nuclear physics predate semiconductor physics? [closed]

Why was nuclear physics able to be developed before semiconductor physics? It seems nuclear physics is based upon even more fundamental interactions than semiconductor physics but the atomic bomb was ...
2
votes
1answer
113 views

How did Kepler's teacher Mästlin calculate the Golden section?

In a letter to Kepler, his former professor Michael Mästlin mentioned that he had calculated the golden section to the 9th decimal place. Why was it considered notable? What method$^\dagger$ did ...
-2
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1answer
127 views

Did Egon Pearson have a PhD?

Did the statistician Egon Pearson have a PhD? If not, to what extent did he write a dissertation?
1
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1answer
82 views

Did the formation of Differential Geometry come before Differential Topology/ Topology in general?

I’m pretty interested in the history of mathematics, and it has always been my belief that the great pioneers of Differential Geometry were Gauss and Riemann, and the father of topology was mostly ...
2
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3answers
401 views

When was mercury given its name?

The Wikipedia page for mercury says that it was named after the Roman god because of his speed and mobility. When did the name mercury start to be used to designate the metal?
0
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0answers
66 views

Has any culture in history ever not invented digits, and just used letters?

We have characters for letters and numbers. We typically view them as a discrete sets. Has any culture ever mangled the two? To some degree it seems almost logical if your letters are already ...
1
vote
1answer
80 views

Source of L’Hôpital’s 1696 Calculus textbook

A calculus textbook I’m using references a calculus book of L’Hôpital in which he illustrates his rule, which is taught in many calculus classes. Does anyone have a source as a scanned PDF? I’d love ...
2
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0answers
58 views

Nachmanides and the Greek proof that the earth is mostly covered with water

In the Biblical account of creation, G-d divided the waters. The rabbi and Biblical commentator Nachmanides wrote about this that he believes the Greek demonstration that the earth is mostly covered ...
3
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0answers
36 views

What alternative theories of learning were there before classical and operant conditioning?

The two main forms of (animal) learning are operant conditioning and classical conditioning, both established only in the 20th century. However, before they were established, surely there have been ...
3
votes
3answers
181 views

Notations for Laplacian: $\nabla^2$ vs. $\Delta$

For a (sufficiently smooth) function $f\colon \Bbb R^n\to\Bbb R$, the Laplacian of $f$ is defined to be $\sum_{j=1}^n \frac{\partial^2 f}{\partial x_j^2}$. There are two notations for the Laplacian ...
0
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0answers
36 views

Pefsu problem explanation

Problem no. 12 from Moscow Mathematical Papyrus: Example of calculation of $13$ heqats of grain If someone says to you: Take $13$ heqats of grain to make them into $18$ jugs of beer Note that the ...
1
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0answers
58 views

Magic Squares at the beginning of 20th century

I am doing research on the Ottoman Engineer and Mathematician Aram Margossian (1853-?) (in Turkish sources Margosyan is also used) He published a book, De l’ordonnance des nombres dans les carrés ...

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