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The Roman numeral system continues to lack a zero digit today. Would zero ever get its own Roman numeral digit in the future? [duplicate]

This question is a follow-up to: Why didn't the number zero (0) have a Roman numeral of its own? The number zero did not have an official Roman numeral symbol in the first place, and it still ...
1
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1answer
71 views

When and how was it discovered that the sun was in different positions depending upon longitude?

It seems to me that the ancient Greeks knew that geographic location affected the apparent position of the sun in sky but given the lack of rapid travel or communications or reliable clocks, how was ...
2
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0answers
41 views

How did Yao came up with his minimum spanning tree algorithm?

I recently stumbled upon this text about Yao's algorithm for the minimum spanning tree (MST) and I was wondering if there are some preceding algorithms (other than Sollin's algorithm) that were ...
2
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1answer
40 views

Did Kolmogorov complexity influence the development of communication complexity?

I was reading a wikipedia article about communication complexity and it seems to me that it bears some resemblance to Kolmogorov complexity. Was the founder of communication complexity influenced by ...
2
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0answers
40 views

Who introduced the comma notation for partial derivatives?

In general relativity, it is common to use the comma notation for partial derivatives $$\frac{\partial g_{\mu\nu}}{\partial x_\rho} = g_{\mu\nu_,\rho}$$ Where did this notation first appear? Was it ...
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2answers
100 views

Why do we use Leibniz's “version” of calculus instead of Newton's?

I understand that they invented calculus independently at roughly the same time, but why do we use Leibniz's terminology/notation rather than Newton's? For example, why don't we use "fluxion"...
6
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2answers
93 views

What mathematical problems did the Sicilians need Arab help with in 1229? Did the Arabs solve these problems?

An incident in the negotations of the Sixth Crusade is described as Frederick II asking help from Arab scholars with some mathematical problems: ... and the sultan graciously allowed Frederick to ...
3
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0answers
65 views

How did Kolmogorov came up with his formalization of intuitionistic logic?

According to this article Kolmogorov published a paper in 1925 in which he attempted to formalize Brouwer’s intuitionistic mathematics. In that paper there are the following logical formulas: \begin{...
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65 views

When was the function 1 + cos(x), aka the vercosine, given a name?

Nowadays, when one searches for little-known trigonometric functions, one usually finds a list containing the versine, coversine, vercosine, and covercosine. When using this list, $1+\cos(x)$ is given ...
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86 views

Have we exhausted all our experimental capabilities? [closed]

Currently high energy physics research has reached a physical plateau, with our current experimental capabilities stuck at 10^4 GeV, while quantum gravitational effects are predicted to appear at 10^...
3
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0answers
81 views

What was the optical problem discussed and solved by Gauss in his 1831 letter to Brandes?

Volume 5 of Gauss's works contains a section which includes "Essays on various objects in mathematical physics". Just to emphasize the importance of this section, i'll mention that it ...
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1answer
63 views

What are the direct predecessors of Lagrange's theory of quadratic forms?

I was reading Stillwell's Mathematics and its History, where Lagrange's theory of quadratic forms is synoptically presented, and I was wondering of what are the direct predecessors of the theory. ...
2
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0answers
95 views

Where is this statement of Bourbaki's Dieudonné from and what does it mean?

In a few places, such as this web page, I have read the following statement about Jean Dieudonné, who was a founding member of the French "secret society" of mathematicians, Nicolas Bourbaki:...
3
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1answer
86 views

Who discovered the thin lens equation $\frac{1}{u}+\frac{1}{v}=\frac{1}{f}$?

According to Weisstein's webpage it was Halley in 1693 (quoting Steinhaus); but I've also seen it attributed to Cotes, Huygens, even Gauss (eg Britannica). Wikipedia's History of Optics does not give ...
1
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1answer
77 views

What was considered Evolutionary Science or Biology proper in 1880-1890 in the US?

I have a question that is more related to the history of evolutionary biology rather than the science itself, namely I am interested in knowing what might have been considered the 'orthodoxy' of the ...
2
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0answers
103 views

Interpretation of a short note of Gauss on the resolution of a special system of inhomogeneous linear equations by roots of unity

My question refers to a 2-pages fragment of Gauss, entitled: "Note on the resolution of a special system of linear equations", which is found on pages 30-31 of volume 8 of his works. In this ...
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1answer
81 views

In which article/book chapter did Cantor, Hibert, and Poincare formally defined or directly discussed the term “potential infinity”?

Some media sources say that "Cantor claimed that there would only be potential infinity, not actual infinity" In addition, the following link claims that Hilbert, Poincare, and Cantor were ...
2
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1answer
87 views

What astronomy efforts required multiplication of large numbers around 1600?

I'm reading an article about the history of logarithms and it says: One problem that was plaguing people at the time, especially astronomers, was arithmetic. Astronomical calculations required the ...
3
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1answer
153 views

What mathematical theorems were known in the Americas prior to European contact?

A comment on another site brought the article How Does Race Affect a Student's Math Education? to my attention. In the article, the author observes (emphasis mine), But she’s also constrained by the ...
5
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3answers
86 views

How large were the differences in the orbit of Uranus which led to the calculation of the existence of Neptune?

After Uranus was discovered and its orbit calculated, its future orbit was calculated, and its future positions as seen from Earth were calculated. And observers of Uranus began to notice that Uranus ...
1
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1answer
81 views

Newton as the first one to establish numerical analysis as a new field of study

I was reading about the history of Newton's Method. Newton used a cubic equation, $x^3 - 2x - 5 = 0$, to show the efficacy of his method around 1670. I was wondering that why Newton would choose this ...
3
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1answer
114 views

Why are complex numbers called 'complex'?

I'm a high school teacher, and I was just wondering why complex numbers are called 'complex'. I have read that Gauss coined the term. But I couldn't find any reference where it was explained. I also ...
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117 views

Has Cantor's irregular enumeration of rationals ever been discussed?

Enumeration of all positive fractions recently has gained renewed interest (see the list below). By translation invariance we can be sure that in all intervals (n, n+1] of the real axis, there are the ...
2
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2answers
70 views

When was compactness theorem for propositional logic first proven?

Compactness for first-order predicate logic was first proven as a corollary of (Gödel 1930). Does anyone know a reference for the first proof of the compactness of propositional logic? Some proofs ...
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1answer
68 views

History of points with coordinates notation

In this MathEducator StackExchange article, "Notation of points with coordinates", it's posed the question about what is the best notation for geometrical points and their coordinates: $P(3, ...
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0answers
43 views

Did Rydberg ever learn of Bohr's quantum-mechanical explanation of his formula?

The Rydberg formula on the wavelengths of a spectral line in chemical elements was first stated empirically in 1888 by Johannes Rydberg. A theoretical explanation of the formula wouldn't arive until ...
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47 views

How did percolation theory come to be established in network science, and who first studied it?

According to the textbook "Network Science" by Albert-László Barabási, percolation theory is a specialized branch of both mathematics and physics [1]. It involves node clustering in a ...
4
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1answer
165 views

Why was the original typesetting of Number Fields by Marcus so horrible?

Does anyone here know what technology or instrument was used to typeset the first edition of the well-received textbook Number Fields by Daniel A. Marcus? I ask because the original edition looked ...
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3answers
949 views

Was there ever a mathematician or physicist who spearheaded a concerted effort to create a flawless musical instrument?

Specifically, is there any research paper or record of where someone renowned in their field performed experiments by using the properties of physics, engineering or mathematics to develop a musical ...
1
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1answer
63 views

When and where was Legendre's Conjecture first published?

When and where did Legendre first publish or write about his conjecture that there is a prime between consecutive square numbers? $$n^2 < p < (n+1)^2$$ I have looked through edition 1 and 2 of ...
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45 views

Is there an English translation of Kronecker's proof of Infinitude of primes?

Is any English translation of the following paper available? H. Hasse, Vorlesungen ¨uber Zahlentheorie, Second edition, Springer-Verlag, New York, $1964$ (L. Kronecker, $269–273; 440–442; $ K. Hensel, ...
23
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2answers
135 views

Weil's reaction to Deligne's proof

How did André Weil react when Pierre Deligne finally solved the most important and hardest of the Weil conjectures ? Is there any written account on this ? I guess Serre's and Grothendieck's (...
6
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0answers
132 views

Did John Von Neumann hate pure mathematics that became too abstract?

John Von Neumann says this in his essay The Mathematician.: "As a mathematical discipline travels far from its empirical source, or still more, if it is a second and third generation only ...
3
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1answer
93 views

Reference for Euler's Introductio in Analysin Infinitorum

In the following answer it has been claimed that "The reference here is not to Euler's 1737 "factorization" of the harmonic series but to 1748 Introductio in Analysin Infinitorum, where the identity ...
3
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0answers
115 views

Lessons from apparent paradoxes in geometric limits

1) Zeno's oxymoronic fleet, stationary arrow: One of the earliest infinity paradoxes, of course, is the flying arrow of Zeno which can't possibly be moving since it takes a finite amount of time to ...
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0answers
83 views

What did scientific research look like during the colonial era of British America?

Since Europe has had numerous people in various fields make several contributions over the centuries, was the same nature of study and academia reflected in the colonies of the western hemisphere? ...
3
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2answers
178 views

Nobel Prize for Applied Mathematics

There is no Nobel Prize for mathematics. However, have there been any Nobel Prizes for the use of applied mathematics to model the real world?
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3answers
145 views

Were the kilogram, the grave, etc. meant to be units of weight, units of mass, or was it ambiguous at the time?

It is sometimes stated that the early metric units of 'weight' really were meant to be exactly that: units of weight (i.e. force), not mass. However, is that really so? In fact, did the people ...
4
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1answer
131 views

Could a “field” have non-commutative multiplication originally?

Today, when the term "field" is defined in algebra, it is almost always stipulated that all fields are commutative. However, the author of these lectures says that this has not always been the case: ...
6
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2answers
118 views

Is there an etymological dictionary of terms in physics?

There are of course many physics dictionaries and glossaries and some words can be found in general etymological dictionaries and even English dictionaries; but is there a Physics Etymological ...
7
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2answers
227 views

Who first identified $\frac{n}{\ln(n)}$ as an approximation of a prime counting function?

Gauss, in his 1849 letter to Encke, mentions that he noticed the primes have a density approx $\frac{1}{\ln(n)}$. In that letter, he also mentions an integral function for approximating the prime ...
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0answers
65 views

What is the original source of the problem of finding equivalent resistance between two nodes in an infinite grid of resistors?

A famous problem in electronics or physics course,is the following--- Consider an infinite 2d grid of resistors having resistance of equal value.Find the resistance between any two nodes in the grid. ...
4
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0answers
63 views

“Nuclear fusion is 30 years away” since when?

It's a well-known, running joke (or criticism) in the fusion community that Fusion is always 30 years away. refering to the considerable difficulties that harnessing nuclear fusion as an energy ...
2
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1answer
72 views

What is the history of these prime counting function approximations?

I am reading several sources and there seems to be a lack of clarity, and some contradiction, about the origins of the most recognised prime counting function approximations: $\pi(n) \sim \frac{n}{\...
2
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0answers
57 views

Why is William Playfair seldom heard about in mathematics?

William Playfair was a Scottish engineer and economist, who invented the pie and bar charts as well as the line graph, which have all played an indubitably ubiquitous role in modern statistics. I hadn'...
2
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1answer
39 views

Who was Hans Bauer who worked on the Perron integral?

I'm referring to the Hans Bauer who is the author of this article from 1915 (H. Bauer, "Der Perronsche Integralbegriff und seine Beziehung auf Lebesguesschen" Monatsh. Math. Phys. , 26 (1915) pp. 153–...
0
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1answer
84 views

What was the content of Sakharov's research into cosmic rays?

According to Wikipedia, Sakharov in his early scientific career investigated cosmic rays. It offers no other details. It claims that it was for this work that he was awarded his doctorate. However ...
3
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1answer
78 views

Who established that $K_e = \frac{1}{4 \pi \varepsilon _m}$?

Coulomb's Law states that : $$F_e = K_e\dfrac{q_1q_2}{r^2}$$ where $q_1$, $q_2$ are magnitudes of the two point charges, $r$ is the distance between them and $K_e$ is Coulomb's Constant (aka ...
0
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1answer
65 views

When did they say 'progression is downward?'

Many creationists use the 2nd law of Thermodynamics "Progression is always downward, a law," to reject evolution. When did this misunderstanding of Thermodynamics start and how to refute it?
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1answer
147 views

Did Einstein oppose evolution? [closed]

According to the laws of nature progression is always downward. One of these laws is the Second Law of Thermodynamics which says that isolated systems cannot increase in complexity. For example, a ...

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