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1answer
31 views

Can any one person be credited with “inventing” algebra?

I have been told by a computer scientist that most people in that field believe that algebra was invented (along with algorithms) by the 9th century mathematician Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi. (I ...
3
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0answers
18 views

When was the ratio between electric and magnetic force established?

We know that the attractive force of B and a particle was found by J.J.Johnson in 1881, with a slight mistake, and then corrected by Heavyside in 1885 FM = v x B Can you tell me when was discovered ...
0
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1answer
56 views

Are these Newton's quotes apocryphal?

I have stumbled upon the following alleged Newton's quotes, but I could not find them in any of their works. No great discovery was ever made without a bold guess. No sciences are better ...
2
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1answer
78 views

Why are revolutions per minute (RPM) still used instead of hertz (Hz)?

When did people start using Revolutions per Minute (RPM) to measure motors, engines, other devices and where did the term originate? Why do we continue to use it instead of an SI unit like Hz? From ...
2
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0answers
67 views

Do other branches of modern science have interpretations like Quantum Mechanics does?

As a layperson, when one learns about Quantum Mechanics, one also learns about the various interpretations of QM-- Many Worlds, Collapse, Pilot Wave theory, etc. However, as far as I can tell (from ...
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1answer
52 views

What was the chain of theories that led to relativity? [on hold]

Can you briefly sketch the sequence of math theories that were necessary for Einstein to figure out a convincing background for relativity?
4
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0answers
71 views

Ala-El-Din Muhammed El Ferjumedhi

I'm looking for more details of a 14th century mathematician Ala-El-Din Muhammad El Ferjumedhi. I'm translating a popular book on the history of mathematics, and there is one figure that shows a ...
0
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0answers
47 views

Were fluxions the only infinitesimals?

The Encyclopaedia Britannica in its history of Science article states that Newton integrals were made of infinitesimals, whereas Leibniz' were made of sticks and that the former's theory prevailed. ...
22
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2answers
2k views

Who discovered the covering homomorphism between SU(2) and SO(3)?

Who discovered this? It is quite nontrivial and very important in quantum mechanics.
2
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0answers
80 views

Translations of “Sur le théorème de Zorn”?

Are there any translations of Nicolas Bourbaki (1949). "Sur le théorème de Zorn". Archiv der Mathematik. 2: 434–437. doi:10.1007/bf02036949. into English, German, or Russian? Any help is ...
1
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1answer
79 views

For shared Nobel prizes, where does the medal go?

When a Nobel prize is awarded to multiple people, the prize money is split. But what about the actual medal - how do they determine who will keep and store it? Been reading through the pages on ...
3
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1answer
68 views

Who first proved that the spectrum of an operator is contained in the closure of its numerical range?

We have recently proven in our functional analysis II lecture that the spectrum of an operator is contained in the closure of its numerical range. On the German wikipedia page for the numerical radius ...
3
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0answers
64 views

Who first proved Fubini's theorem $n$th order integrals?

Who first proved a generalized Fubini theorem for integrals of order $≥3$? An $n$th order integral is $$\underbrace{\underset{x_n}\int\underset{x_{n-1}}\int\ldots\underset{x_1}\int}_{n} f(x_1,x_2,\...
1
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1answer
103 views

What was the real need of divergence and curl operators?

As I'm advancing my study in Electromagnetism I'm getting introduced to more mathematical operators which are exclusively used in Electromagnetism and Fluid Dynamics only. Let me try to explain ...
3
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0answers
83 views

Identification of scientists in de Gennes book

Petit Point: A Candid Portrait on the Aberrations of Science is a charming book written by the French physicist Pierre-Gilles de Gennes containing short essays on some of the prominent scientists that ...
5
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1answer
122 views

Did Cauchy ever deal with double or triple integrals?

Did Cauchy ever deal with double or triple integrals? Did he give rigorous proofs of multivariable integral calculus like what came to be called Stokes's theorem, the divergence theorem, etc.?
8
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1answer
37 views

Seven bridges of Königsberg - did people know that it was impossible? [duplicate]

I'm not sure if this is the most suitable site for the question. Please feel free to modify or move my post! I have heard that people really walked a lot in Königsberg, trying to solve that seven ...
4
votes
1answer
111 views

Were typographical variations between printings of the same journal article common?

In another question, I was asking about the origin of the reduced Planck's constant, $\hbar \equiv \frac{h}{2 \pi} .$ Specifically, I wanted to know why the symbol $`` \hbar "$ was selected for the ...
-2
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0answers
27 views

some examples of clash of ides or intrests between famouse scientists like Tesla vs Edison

I wanted to give a talk about the clash of ideas between famous scientists(either driven by greed or ego or something else) and derive a moral out of the story. Can you please give me some examples ...
0
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1answer
40 views

Who discovered anisotropic materials, and what were they studying?

Thinking of properties of materials, who discovered anisotropy and what materials were they studying? I had read a claim that the first recorded experiments to study anisotropy are those by Duhamel ...
-1
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1answer
37 views

Who first distinguished number theory and numerology? [duplicate]

Who first distinguished number theory and numerology?
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0answers
62 views

Who first explained why there are 7 days in a week?

Who first explained why there are 7 days in a week?
0
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0answers
30 views

How were sundials first divided up into hour-long segments?

Even with present-day knowledge of celestial mechanics, if you asked me to go outside and set up a sundial without the aid of any other timekeeping devices, I would have a very hard time. The time ...
5
votes
1answer
153 views

Where did the term “set-builder notation” come from?

In math stack exchange I often see notations like $\{x\in\mathbb Q:x^2<2\}$ being called instances of set builder notation. When I went to school we (that is, I, my fellow students, my teachers, ...
3
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1answer
63 views

What did Kaspar contribute to the gene therapy for spinal muscular atrophy?

I've read on KEI website that in the early 2000s Dr Martine Barkats, from France, successfuly treated mice with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) with an AAV9 viral vector; and that Dr Brian Kaspar, an ...
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0answers
42 views

What does the first postulate of Special Relativity mean? [migrated]

Physical laws are invariant regardless. It can be an inertial frame and also a non inertial frame. Now it is the case you cannot do any experiment in an inertial frame of reference to test if you are ...
0
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0answers
47 views

How important was the islamic world for the progress and development of humanity during the medieval times? [duplicate]

This is more of a history question, but I'd be happy if someone answered me. I was told in my 'history and philosophy of science' class that the Islamic society played an important role in connecting ...
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0answers
65 views

Theory criteria from Misner-Thorne-Wheeler

In chapter 39.1 of Gravitation, by Misner, Thorne and Wheeler, it is asserted, quite reasonably, that a theory of gravitation (and, I assume, quite generally) must satisfy the three following criteria ...
4
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1answer
121 views

Are Euclid's theorems and proofs due to Euclid?

Some appear to argue that much of the Elements by Euclid is a compilation of knowledge handed down to Euclid from his predecessors. On the other hand, some credit the proof, of the Pythagorean theorem ...
4
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1answer
116 views

How did Bombelli transform $\sqrt[3]{2\pm11\sqrt{-1}}$ into $2\pm\sqrt{-1}$?

The story of Bombelli solving the equation $x^3=15x+4$ in L'Algebra and introducing $\sqrt{-1}$ is well known. The equation, having obvious root $x=4$, is solved using Cardano's formula: $$ x=\sqrt[3]{...
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2answers
74 views

How does Charles Babbage's Difference Engine solve his quest for automating Log Tables?

At the London Science Museum, we see a model built in 1999 of Charles Babbage's Difference Engine No.2 based on the plans he left: We know that Charles Babbage wrote a book of log tables: In doing ...
3
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0answers
72 views

Where does the notion of “three crises of mathematics” come from? [duplicate]

Update: It can be traced back to Fraenkel-Bar-Hillel's Foundations of Set Theory, originally published in 1958. Further discussions can be seen at the linked question. The notion of "three crises of ...
0
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1answer
75 views

Did Charles Babbage lay out his log table like this?

We read that Charles Babbage was interested in building a machine to tabulate polynomial functions. This came from writing a book of log tables. Here we see an example of how to use a log table: My ...
3
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1answer
121 views

What is the modern context of Gauss's work on triangles with integer sides and circumradius?

In chapter V of volume 2 of Dickson's "History of the theory of numbers" (p.191-195), which collects results on "rational" triangles (triangles with integer side lengths), apear several results on the ...
5
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1answer
131 views

When did mathematicians transition from peg and rope to straightedege and compass?

In the 19th and 20th centuries, the student of classical Greek geometry used "straight edge and compass". A. Seidenberg uses the terminology "peg and cord" in proposing that altar construction ...
5
votes
3answers
347 views

What is the origin of the $\hbar$ symbol?

Equations involving Planck's constant, $h ,$ are often simplified by instead writing them in terms of the reduced Planck's constant, $\hbar \equiv \frac{h}{2 \pi}.$ But where did the symbol for the ...
0
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0answers
66 views

Does Einstein's original derivation of E=MC^2 exist and what is it?

I read an article published by Scientific American stating Einstein did not prove the equation within the context of Special Relativity but I am skeptical. I was hoping someone could point me in the ...
3
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0answers
60 views

pre-20th century sources on information theory?

What are some pre-19th or pre-20th century sources on information theory? Do they exist?
0
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0answers
25 views

Usage of terms prior and posterior in probability

Probability function is of two types in general. They are unconditional probability and conditional probability. But the terms prior probability and posterior probability are used in place of ...
4
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1answer
208 views

Why are 'speed' and 'velocity' not given the same name?

Position is a vector. Distance/length is a name of its magnitude. Velocity is a vector. Speed is a name of its magnitude. Acceleration is a name of a vector and its magnitude. Force is a name of a ...
3
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4answers
150 views

Where does the material implication come from, if not from George Boole?

I looked through both of George Boole's treatises (1 and 2), but there is nothing like implication as I have seen it, with $F \rightarrow F = T$ $F \rightarrow T = T$ $T \rightarrow F = F$ $T \...
3
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1answer
80 views

What did Sommerfeld mean by Bohr's magic wand?

Background From wikipedia: "Bohr's correspondence principle demands that classical physics and quantum physics give the same answer when the systems become large.[5] A. Sommerfeld (1924) referred ...
17
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2answers
3k views

What was the relationship between Einstein and Minkowski?

I read many Einstein's Biographies, but Minkowski was never mentioned, though his discovery of the union of space and time created the basis for GR. Minkowski was Einstein's teacher of mathematics ...
2
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1answer
120 views

First time the unique factorization theorem was called FTA

First of all, a comment, before this gets marked as a duplicate: I have searched this website for the question I’m asking and I’m aware that this exact question has been asked before. However, Eric ...
0
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0answers
43 views

In which year did Hippocrates introduce the historical conception of disease?

I am aware the notion of disease 'having a course' comes from Hippocrates, who is known as the father of modern medicine in part due to this reason. From this fact I wonder if someone knows and could ...
5
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1answer
115 views

Where did Einstein propose interpreting the square of amplitude as probability density (Born's rule)?

In Max Born's Nobel lecture, he alludes to Einstein's proposed interpretation of EM wave amplitude (squared) as being the probability density of detecting a photon: Again an idea of Einstein’s gave ...
0
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0answers
62 views

Why isn't François Proth's name used for Gilbreath's conjecture as he discovered & published a proof 80 years earlier?

According to Wikipedia's Gilbreath's conjecture page, The statement is named after mathematician Norman L. Gilbreath who, in 1958, presented it to the mathematical community after observing the ...
3
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1answer
92 views

From where the so-named “elastica problem” is coming from?

In a book by Cash et al, I see the mention of the so-called Elastica problem (pg 221 in the link here). The problem is presented as a system of ODEs, $$ x' = \cos (\phi) $$ $$ y' = \sin (\phi) $$...
3
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1answer
50 views

Earliest use of the word 'polytropic' to describe an equation of state or process

When and by whom was the word 'polytropic' first used to describe an equation of state or process of the form $P \propto V^n$? Why was this particular word chosen? The earliest use of the word that I ...
4
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0answers
94 views

Did Paul Dirac believe in multiple universes?

Prominent physicist Paul Dirac proposed a hypothesis that said that constants and laws of physics would evolve with time into different constants and laws of nature. This hypothesis was used by ...

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