I hope to know who first used the name "Hawaiian Earrings."

Barratt, Milnor(1962) says "This example was suggested by Steenrod" in its Introduction:

And this is Steenrod(1949):

But these two articles don't use the term "Hawaiian Earrings."

I posted this question at Reddit and got a recommendation for this forum.
Also kindly proposed was Kaminker, Schochet(1977):

Any additional suggestions will be appreciated.

  • 2
    $\begingroup$ E.C.Zeeman: Dihomology I, Proc. London Math. Soc.(1958,1962)636 "One of the simplest examples is the Hawaiian earring, which is the familiar countable bunch of circles" $\endgroup$ – user12897 Sep 7 '20 at 22:12
  • $\begingroup$ Isn't there some Google search tool that will do a "dive" into all available literature and make a graph of the existence of a word or phrase vs. time(year of publication)? I don't recall how to run that but I know it's out there somewhere. $\endgroup$ – Carl Witthoft Sep 8 '20 at 11:38
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    $\begingroup$ @Carl Witthoft, Google Scholar returns 7 results for ["Hawaiian Earring" OR "Hawaiian Earrings"] between [1940-1980]. The oldest was Kaminker, Schochet(1977). "scholar.google.com/…" $\endgroup$ – user12897 Sep 8 '20 at 14:33
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    $\begingroup$ R.M.Dudley: Continuity of homomorphisms, Duke Mathematical Journal(1961) says in p.590 [P is the fundamental group of the "clamshell" or "Hawaiian earring", the union of the circles], and citing 2 articles of H.B.Griffiths. But those 2 articles don't contain "Hawaiian Earring", if I didn't miss it. $\endgroup$ – user12897 Sep 8 '20 at 14:48
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    $\begingroup$ @CarlWitthoft I believe that you are thinking of the google ngram tool which is part of the google books app. I did a search for the period 1900-1970 and the result indicates first usage in 1958, though none of the linked books for this period appear to be about mathematics. The first maths text linked is Homology Theory by Hilton and Wylie published in 1962. $\endgroup$ – Nick Sep 8 '20 at 19:50

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