I hope to know who first used the name "Hawaiian Earrings."

Barratt, Milnor(1962) says "This example was suggested by Steenrod" in its Introduction:

And this is Steenrod(1949):

But these two articles don't use the term "Hawaiian Earrings."

I posted this question at Reddit and got a recommendation for this forum.
Also kindly proposed was Kaminker, Schochet(1977):

Any additional suggestions will be appreciated.

  • 3
    $\begingroup$ E.C.Zeeman: Dihomology I, Proc. London Math. Soc.(1958,1962)636 "One of the simplest examples is the Hawaiian earring, which is the familiar countable bunch of circles" $\endgroup$
    – user12897
    Commented Sep 7, 2020 at 22:12
  • 2
    $\begingroup$ @Carl Witthoft, Google Scholar returns 7 results for ["Hawaiian Earring" OR "Hawaiian Earrings"] between [1940-1980]. The oldest was Kaminker, Schochet(1977). "scholar.google.com/…" $\endgroup$
    – user12897
    Commented Sep 8, 2020 at 14:33
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ R.M.Dudley: Continuity of homomorphisms, Duke Mathematical Journal(1961) says in p.590 [P is the fundamental group of the "clamshell" or "Hawaiian earring", the union of the circles], and citing 2 articles of H.B.Griffiths. But those 2 articles don't contain "Hawaiian Earring", if I didn't miss it. $\endgroup$
    – user12897
    Commented Sep 8, 2020 at 14:48
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ The following books seem to have no "Hawaiian Earring." (I hope I missed, though :-) P. Alexandroff, Elementary Concepts in Topology(1932) -good old thin Dover- I. Pontrjagin, Topological Groups(1946). S. Lefschetz, Introduction to Topology(1949). N. Steenrod, Topology of Fibre Bundles(1951). S. Eilenberg, N. Steenrod, Foundations of Algebraic Topology(1952). E. Artin, Elements of Algebraic Geometry(1955). H. Cartan, S. Eilenberg, Homological Algebra(1956). K. Borsuk, The Theory of Retracts(1966). $\endgroup$
    – user12897
    Commented Sep 8, 2020 at 15:11
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ @CarlWitthoft I believe that you are thinking of the google ngram tool which is part of the google books app. I did a search for the period 1900-1970 and the result indicates first usage in 1958, though none of the linked books for this period appear to be about mathematics. The first maths text linked is Homology Theory by Hilton and Wylie published in 1962. $\endgroup$
    – nwr
    Commented Sep 8, 2020 at 19:50


Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service and acknowledge you have read our privacy policy.