6
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I hope to know who first used the name "Hawaiian Earrings."

Barratt, Milnor(1962) says "This example was suggested by Steenrod" in its Introduction:
https://www.ams.org/journals/proc/1962-013-02/S0002-9939-1962-0137110-9/S0002-9939-1962-0137110-9.pdf

And this is Steenrod(1949):
https://www.jstor.org/stable/1969589

But these two articles don't use the term "Hawaiian Earrings."


I posted this question at Reddit and got a recommendation for this forum.
Also kindly proposed was Kaminker, Schochet(1977):
https://www.ams.org/journals/tran/1977-227-00/S0002-9947-1977-0431136-9/S0002-9947-1977-0431136-9.pdf

Any additional suggestions will be appreciated.

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    $\begingroup$ E.C.Zeeman: Dihomology I, Proc. London Math. Soc.(1958,1962)636 "One of the simplest examples is the Hawaiian earring, which is the familiar countable bunch of circles" $\endgroup$ – noel_lapin Sep 7 at 22:12
  • $\begingroup$ Isn't there some Google search tool that will do a "dive" into all available literature and make a graph of the existence of a word or phrase vs. time(year of publication)? I don't recall how to run that but I know it's out there somewhere. $\endgroup$ – Carl Witthoft Sep 8 at 11:38
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    $\begingroup$ @Carl Witthoft, Google Scholar returns 7 results for ["Hawaiian Earring" OR "Hawaiian Earrings"] between [1940-1980]. The oldest was Kaminker, Schochet(1977). "scholar.google.com/…" $\endgroup$ – noel_lapin Sep 8 at 14:33
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    $\begingroup$ R.M.Dudley: Continuity of homomorphisms, Duke Mathematical Journal(1961) says in p.590 [P is the fundamental group of the "clamshell" or "Hawaiian earring", the union of the circles], and citing 2 articles of H.B.Griffiths. But those 2 articles don't contain "Hawaiian Earring", if I didn't miss it. $\endgroup$ – noel_lapin Sep 8 at 14:48
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    $\begingroup$ @CarlWitthoft I believe that you are thinking of the google ngram tool which is part of the google books app. I did a search for the period 1900-1970 and the result indicates first usage in 1958, though none of the linked books for this period appear to be about mathematics. The first maths text linked is Homology Theory by Hilton and Wylie published in 1962. $\endgroup$ – Nick Sep 8 at 19:50

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