Turing Test has often been referred to both in academia and outside it when talking about AI. Yet there were I suppose many more thinkers except for Turing, possibly Descartes among them, that dealt with the question "Can machines think." If so, who were the major ones? And why did Turing's Test became the Influential one among his predecessors?
Additionally, is there any historical link between Turing's choice of test and the psychological theory of behaviorism?