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I am wondering who actually invented the (magnetic) quadrupole lens or who used it for the first time. I have found some papers from the 50s and 60s about more complicated systems based on Quadrupoles, but i am interested, who came up with idea to use quadrupoles for focusing of charged articles and who built the first focusing doublet. Here are some publications and patents that I found so far, that are not satisfying me, because there must be earlier work:

  • Ernest D. Courant, M. Stanley Livingston, and Hartland S. Snyder, "The Strong-Focusing Synchroton - A New High Energy Accelerator", Phys. Rev. 88 (1952), pp. 1190--1196.

  • Nicholas Christofilos, "Focussing system for ions and electrons" (1956), US2736799A.

  • Walter Glaser, "Electron Lens" (1959), US2919381.

I am wondering whether the use of quadrupoles for (1D) focusing of charged particles is just to straight forward, to publish an article about it, but still it should be quite noteworthy when some one built the first quadrupole doublet for (anasticmatic) imaging with charged particles.

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