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The two main forms of (animal) learning are operant conditioning and classical conditioning, both established only in the 20th century. However, before they were established, surely there have been alternative theories of how animals learn. What were they?

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  • $\begingroup$ What makes you think there were any? Conditions for systematic study of animal learning did not emerge until the late 19th century:"The first theory of associative learning in animals was proposed more than a century ago by Thorndike (1898). Thorndike argued that learning consists of the formation of connections between stimuli and responses and that these connections are formed whenever a response is followed by reward." Pearce-Bouton, Theories of Associative Learning in Animals. $\endgroup$
    – Conifold
    Sep 15 at 4:09

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