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I've come to the notion of the Picard Group.

I was recently linked to this paper paper, which contains the line:

The problem of computing the Picard groups of surfaces $S \subset \mathbb{P}_{\mathbb{C}}^{3}$ has a long history. The solution for smooth quadratic and cubic surfaces was known in the 1800s in terms of lines on these surfaces. In the 1880s, Noether suggested what happens in higher degree, but it wasn’t until the 1920s that Lefschetz proved the famous result bearing their name.

However, the article does not give any references to these early texts and works.

Where was it that algebraic geometers first started thinking about the Picard group, and what was it that they had in mind when doing so?

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