According to the MacTutor essay "D'Arcy Thompson on Greek irrationals" (which I take to be a version of Thompson's original essay whose only liberty with the original text is giving English translations where Thompson gives Greek words and phrases), Proclus, following Adrastus, asserted that $2+8+50+288+\dots$ (the sum of twice the squares of the "side numbers" $1,2,5,12,\dots$) equals $1+9+49+289+\dots$ (the sum of the squares of the "diagonal numbers" $1,3,7,17,\dots$). Here is the relevant excerpt:
"The table of side and diagonal numbers has many other properties. For instance, as Proclus tells us, the sum of the squares of two adjacent diagonals = twice the sum of the squares on the two corresponding sides: e.g. $3^2+7^2=2(2^2+5^2)$. And, in Chapter xxiii he shows, following Adrastus, that the sum of the squares of 'all' the diagonals is equal to twice the sum of the squares of 'all' the sides."
I haven't been able to find the text that Thompson is referring to here. In any case, I'm curious whether the original text seems to be an early attempt at manipulating divergent series.
Interestingly, under modern approaches to regularizing divergent series, the equality asserted by Proclus fails: the two divergent sums differ by $\frac12$.
[Note: This question was originally posted at MathOverflow, but it seems more appropriate here.]