I know of Maxwell's, Descartes' and Laplace's demons but I recently found out that there is Darwinian one. I do not think that this demon appears in the works of Charles Darwin. Do you know who may have coined the term (Darwin's/Darwinian demon)?
This article: U. Kutschera & K. J. Niklas Darwin-Wallace Demons: survival of the fastest in populations of duckweeds and the evolutionary history of an enigmatic group of angiosperms (2014) says it was R. Law Optimal life histories under age-specific predation The American Naturalist (1979). But I have found various earlier sources.
The earliest English source I could find is Colin S. Pittendrigh's On temporal organization in living systems - Harvey lectures, 1961, in relation to the works of German E. Bünning. So maybe it appears first in another language? Also I am unsure if such a concept was invented for a lecture.