The Iranian New Year unlike most other cultural celebrations of our planet completing a trip around the sun is exact and observational, I am curious exactly when the observational nature of the calendar was adopted socially.

In the Gregorian Calendar the moment of "New Year" is when the date changes from Dec 31 to Jan 1, a.k.a midnight. Hence the moment of New Years varies with one's time zones. Although I am not familiar with other calenders in depth, my understanding is that various other cultures don't even celebrate the moment of New Years, its more a celebration around the day of and eve of New Years (like the Chinese Lunisolar Calendar or the Arabic Lunar Calendar).

The Iranian Calendar however celebrates its new year at the precise moment of the Vernal Equinox, and this moment is of cultural significance. This is why it is an observational calendar. Unlike the Gregorian Calendar based on an algorithm of leap years, the Iranian Calendar is based on the precise positioning of the Earth and Sun. Hence it actually has no error.

To be clear this year in Eastern Time, New Years is at 23:06:26PM on March 19th. This is a time precise down to the second, and virtually every family who celebrates Nowruz will celebrate at this MOMENT. This means regardless of one's timezone, New Year Time is the same everywhere. It's actually quite beautiful.

Now my question is: when was this practice of precision relating to the time of celebrating New Years adopted socially? It is very hard for me to imagine before the advent of radio some local fella without his personal observatory knowing the exact time of the Vernal Equinox. So then what? What was the timeline of the adoption of this beautiful (and perfect I would argue) calendar? Is there some body of astronomers which determine the exact Vernal Equinox used for the Iranian Calendar**? Did royalty/aristocracy who likely had access to astronomers and mathematicians always celebrate precisely or is this entire practice novel to the 20th century?

**I know every observatory determines the Equinox, but much like standard time there ought be some organization and institution for the Iranian Calendar which has the final say.



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