What is the oldest way to measure the voltage?

I mean the experimental way or apparatus.

  • $\begingroup$ Frog Galvanoscope after the discovery that frog legs twitch when exposed to electricity by Luigi Galvani in 1781. $\endgroup$
    – Georg Essl
    Commented May 16 at 13:48
  • 2
    $\begingroup$ For a comprehensive account see Keithley, The Story of Electrical and Magnetic Measurements: From 500 BC to the 1940s. $\endgroup$
    – Conifold
    Commented May 16 at 14:58
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ I see you've edited the question. By "measure a voltage" do you mean to simply determine that a potential difference exists, or an actual quantitative measurement e.g. 2 volts vs 1.5 volts? I'm not sure the frog leg twitch scale was quantitative enough for you. $\endgroup$
    – uhoh
    Commented May 18 at 0:50


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