Many of the 'famous' papers in the scientific community have resulted in Nobel prizes, but certainly that represents only a small fraction of notably important papers throughout scientific history. What are some of the most famous/important non-Nobel prize winning papers/scientific-works?
Here are some prominent examples of unrecognized discoveries; the actual publications should be easily findable online. Note that I've only included omitted discoveries, not omitted individuals (such as Lise Meitner's omission for nuclear fission, or Chien-Shiung Wu's for parity conservation). I've also only included work whose inventor was still alive when the Nobels were around (so no Newton!).
- The periodic table of elements (1869) by Dmitri Mendeleev (1834-1907).
- Covalent bonds and electron pairs (1916) by Gilbert Lewis (1875-1946).
- Transition state theory (1935) by Henry Eyring (1901-1981).
- Special relativity (1905), Brownian motion (1905) and general relativity (1915) by Albert Einstein (1879-1955)
- Bose-Einstein statistics (1924) by Satyendra Nath Bose (1894-1974) and Einstein.
- Big Bang theory and Hubble's law (1927) by Georges Lemaître (1896-1966)
Physiology or Medicine
- DNA as the building block of genes (1944) by Oswald Avery (1877-1955)
- Molecular phylogeny (1977) by Carl Woese (1928-2012)