Yes, it has been: , or more stylized , the depression made by the tip of a Babylonian wedge shaped stylus on a clay tablet. When a circular stylus was used (rarely) the symbol was just $\bigcirc$. The earliest positional system was sexagesimal, with base 60, so it had cuneiform symbols for all digits from 1 to 59. Babylonians used it since before 2000 BC for commercial bookkeeping, etc. The absence of zero caused ambiguities, e.g. 1 and 60 had the same symbol. In the medial positions, however, zero was represented by a blank and later by a placeholder symbol . Greek astronomers replaced it with $o$ in the second century BC, that could be used at the end of a number also, removing the ambiguities. They also used their letter $\iota$ for 10 instead of Babylonian cuneiform, even though it was the 9th letter of their alphabet (archaic letter $\digamma$ was used for 6).
So the use of zero as a placeholder much predates its use as a number, and Indians learned about it from Ptolemy's Almagest, if not earlier. Therefore, they would have needed no separate symbol for 10 when they switched to decimal notation. But in any case, zero is already used in 3rd century AD even as a number, while the decimal notation first appears much later, around 458 AD, so the problem never arose.
But 10 was not special among sexagesimal digits, so perhaps more in the spirit of the question is the symbol $\big|$ used in Chinese proto-decimal system before 4th century BC. That system had hieroglyphs for digits from 1 to 9, and for the powers of 10. Although digits were written in order we write them today to form a number, the symbol for a power of ten was placed above or below each, so its value wasn't indicated by position alone. This allowed for non-ambiguous representation without even placeholder 0, and the number could still be recovered if the digits got scrambled.
By the way, hexadecimal system was also used in China, mostly for calculations with weights. This was done on abacus (counting board) starting around 190 AD, and since abacus is not paper what represented 10 was not a symbol, but an arrangement of beads.