The answer to this question cannot but be very vague and much country-dependent. Even when on limits itself to the scientific environment it has to be considered that quantum mechanichs, shared with relativity a curious fate: it was termed as "non arian physics" or "hebrew physics" and so much opposed by sort of "conservative" physicists in Germany and Italy, but also in some other European countries.
But we can put some landmarks, here and there. In 1932 Heisenberg was awarded the Nobel prize and in 1933 Schrodinger and Dirac as well. So we can fairly say that apart from this conservative resistance I mentioned above, by that moment quantum mechanichs was mainstream in modern physics. On the other hand in 1929 the poet D.H. Lawrence wrote the following poem
RELATIVITY by D.H. Lawrence
I like relativity and quantum theories
because I don't understand them
and they make me feel as if space shifted about like a swan that
refusing to sit still and be measured;
and as if the atom were an impulsive thing
always changing its mind.
(from Pansies: Poems, 1929)
which shows that the theory was already circulating in cultural circles. It should be no surprise since at the time it was normal for famous scientists to be invited to give "open conferences" to a general audience (which for example Bohr did the first time he visited USA).
So if we consider that Heisenberg's uncertainity principle is from 1922 (EDIT 1927), De Broglie PhD thesis from 1924, the famous Vth Solvay Conference in 1927 we can say that during the 20ies the theory both rapidly spread in scientific circles and in cultural ones. The thirties, together with the opposition I mentioned, brought this somewhat to a stop, The theory was still perceived to be controversial, and this might explain why it took much more to have it so widely accepted to arrive to high school textbooks.