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A Google search for the first academic computer science program a couple of years ago cited a half-dozen programs in France and England that were considered proto-computer science. Current searches yield no such answers. Can anyone suggest an avenue for recovering the names of those programs? The earliest was in the 1800s.

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  • $\begingroup$ At what point does automated calculation (Charles Babbage, etc) and process automation (Joseph Marie Jacquard, etc) become computation? $\endgroup$ – Steve Bird Aug 14 '15 at 5:37
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There was study of computation without (analog or digital) computers. Initially, computers were people who computed. A more theoretical question is that of computatability. If Gödel's answer to Hilbert's question counts, how about the Göttingen School?

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