In 1555, John Dee was arrested for "calculating". According to his MacTutor biography:
At this time mathematics in England was considered to be equivalent to the possession of magical powers and Aubrey writes that the authorities had "... burned mathematical books for conjuring books."
In our society it seems astonishing that performing calculations could be taken to be magic. When and why did the association between mathematics and calculation begin, was it peculiar to England, and when and why did it end?