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I would like to know the history and the original meaning of the word "vector". Thank you for any hints.

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    $\begingroup$ See en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euclidean_vector. $\endgroup$ – HDE 226868 Jan 2 '16 at 17:52
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    $\begingroup$ I'm putting this question on hold because it shows insufficient prior research. The obvious Wikipedia article (linked above) contains the information requested. $\endgroup$ – Danu Jan 2 '16 at 23:12
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The Oxford English Dictionary has this:

J. Harris Lexicon Technicum I, 1704

A Line supposed to be drawn from any Planet moving round a Center, or the Focus of an Ellipsis, to that Center or Focus, is by some Writers of the New Astronomy, called the Vector; because 'tis that Line by which the Planet seems to be carried round its Center.

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    $\begingroup$ For the benefit of non-Latinists: "vector" means "carrier". $\endgroup$ – fdb Jan 2 '16 at 22:44

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