Yes, it does. Ignoring the differences between Greek Περὶ, Latin De, etc., the tradition of starting titles with a preposition predates Aristotle, e.g. Eudoxus wrote On Speeds, where he described his astronomical system based on homocentric spheres (the one that Aristotle was elaborating in On Heavens). Modern influence, as for many other things, goes through the Renaissance and 17th century authors, e.g. Amico resurrected Eudoxian-Aristotelian system in his 1536 work titled On the Motions of Heavenly Bodies according to Peripatetic Principles without Eccentrics or Epicycles. That Aristarchus titled his only surviving work On the Sizes and Distances of the Sun and Moon might also have helped Copernicus to name his opus magnum De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium (1543).
But it was not just Aristotle and Eudoxus who were imitated, but also (and perhaps more) Archimedes and Galen. Archimedes's On Spirals, and On the Sphere and Cylinder were instrumental in the development of differential and integral calculus ideas by Cavalieri and Torricelli, respectively, and On the Equilibrium of Planes and On Floating Bodies were equally instrumental in the development of mechanics by Descartes, Pascal and Newton among others. Two of Newton's early drafts of Principia are titled starting with De (De Motu Corporum in Gyrum and De Motu Corporum in Mediis Regulariter Cedentibus). There is a number of De titles in Galenic corpus as well (including Περί κράσεων translated into Latin as De Temperamentis), which perhaps caught an eye of Renaissance physicians. Fracastoro titled his most famous work De Contagione et Contagiosis Morbis (1546), that's the one where he introduced the germ theory of diseases.