In modern physics textbooks, we teach Newton's laws of motion, then Newton's law of Universal Gravitation, and then Kepler's laws of planetary motion. Specifically, from the $1/r^2$ form of the gravitational force, and some other parts of Newton's laws, we can derive Kepler's 3rd law, that the period of motion of a planet is proportional to the $3/2$ power of its distance from the sun.
But historically, Kepler developed his laws before Newton wrote the Principia. Newton formulated his laws in the Principia, then (also in the Principia) derived the specific $1/r^2$ form of his gravitational law from the $3/2$ power form of Kepler's 3rd law.
My question is: when did physics texts and/or courses switch from the historical order of these two laws to the more recent (and possibly more pedagogical)? Was there a reason given at the time? The historical order was more inductive in its reasoning, while the modern presentation is more deductive in its reasoning.
One possibility I can think of is that we derive the $1/r^2$ form of Coulomb's law using Gauss's law and the fact that (macroscopic) space is 3-dimensional. That derivation carries over word-for-word to gravity. That becomes a very logical reason to say gravity should have the $1/r^2$ form once you know vector calculus. That might be a fruitful time period to look at.