Can anyone give a list of famous scientists in the Nazi Party? Is there a complete list?
The most famous mathematicians who were the members of NSDAP are Ludwig Bieberbach and Oswald Teichmuller.
I am not sure which "Hilbert" is mentioned in the question but mathematician David Hilbert certainly was not a party member, and had very negative attitude to the Nazis.
Philip Lenard, who with Stark founded the "Deutsche Physik" mouvement.
There are also examples of scientists who claimed to be "nominal members only": Wernher von Braun comes to mind (even if he admitted knowing about the slave labor used to construct the V2 rockets); he was not only a member of the Nazi party but also of the SS.
The mathematician who would be famous if he was no member of the ss / nazi party /died in a POW camp is I think Gerhard Gentzen https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerhard_Gentzen
He invented/rigouously described natural deduction https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_deduction and sequent calculus but is well writtten out of the history
In philosophy circles in debates between analytic philosophers (logic ) and continental philosophers there are sometimes discussions about who was worse? Heidegger or Frege , Frege died before WW2 so Heidegger is worse.
These questions are related to which philosophy ,(analytical or continental), is the easiest misused for bad goals
But if Gentzen was known the question would be between Heidegger or Gentzen and the question could have a different answer.
I have a book on Natural deduction (logic by Tommassi) it mentions lot of people involved in its development , but Gentzen is missing.
After the Second World War, Operation Paperclip was started to bring certain top German scientists to America. Many of these had worked on military applications for the Nazis (developing rockets etc.), and some may have been involved with the Nazis in other capacities as well.
A short list of the more famous scientists includes
- Wernher von Braun
- Kurt Tank - designed many German aircraft during WWII
- Eberhard Rees
- There are others listed here.
Note added by Danu to remove confusion caused by the initial wording of this post: After the war, Operation Paperclip continued for many years, as an effort to bring German scientists to the USA to prevent them from being recruited by the Soviets in the Cold War. In this context, many others were brought to the USA, though there is no direct tie to any possible World War II activities.
Further, there was a list called the Osenberg List. During the war, the Germans needed to recall all PhDs, scientists, etc, from active military service as they needed help developing new weaponry. The identified intellectuals were first politically cleared and then listed on the Osenberg List. I looked around and couldn't seem to find a copy of the Osenberg List, but it seems like that list is what you want.
He introduced groupoids and did some work on quadratic forms and quaternions, but I don't think he is considered a famous scientist: Heinrich Brandt. However, he was a very active Nazi, being a member of some Nazi organisations and most notably, he was a Förderndes Mitglied der SS. (According to German Wikipedia, referencing Harry Waibel, Diener vieler Herren: Ehemalige NS-Funktionäre in der SBZ/DDR (2011) p. 51.)
To be really honest, all university professors who remained in office in Germany after 1933 collaborated in one way or another with the regime. This goes for big shots like Planck, Heisenberg, Schrödinger, and others.