I am trying to trace (as far as known) the first example of a digital computing device. I am discounting (no pun) an abacus because I regard that as a device for representing, storing and manipulating discrete, not binary digital, data values.
I have read that in 1937 Church and Turing published theoretical papers on computing. My understanding is that the (universal?) Turing machine does not explicitly require a digital representation of data and operations (maybe that is wrong).
I am trying to track down the point that it became clear that both data and operations could be represented by digital codes (maybe it was Church-Turing?). I have read that the earliest binary digital computers were produced by
1938: Konrad Zuse: Konrad Zuse creates the Z1 Computer a binary digital computer using punch tape
1939 George Stibitz: George Stibitz develops the Complex Number Calculator - a foundation for digital computers
Was this the time when the relationship between high-level operations (such as integer multiplication) and manipulating binary digits became explicit?