After the Second World War Russia had a vastly larger number of students being trained in their universities compared to the United States around the time of the International Geophysical Year in 1957. Previous to the discovery of the transistor a great deal of discoveries were made in the area of radio and radar which lead right into the quest to learn about semiconductors but the names I read about appear to be mainly American and British in the semiconductor initial research and development. I am thinking did Russia have its own version of a semiconductor explosion fueled by it's own scientists ? As for example I believe but am not sure they credit their own scientists with powered flight and I believe do not recognize the Wright Brother's as being the first, as for example.

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    $\begingroup$ If you can read Russian (or use Google translate): gete.ru/post_1172774080.html A Russian joke is that the first semiconductor was invented in Russia in 1613 (by Ivan Susanin). $\endgroup$ Aug 1, 2017 at 0:34
  • $\begingroup$ Thank you for the edits they are excellent and Soviet Union would be better to use but I used Russia implying the former Soviet Union. $\endgroup$
    – Sedumjoy
    Jun 27, 2020 at 13:58
  • $\begingroup$ Thank you I did not know that , I will edit my question and use Soviet Union. I think it is good information and would be of more value if more people can see it. Thank you $\endgroup$
    – Sedumjoy
    Jun 28, 2020 at 20:28
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    $\begingroup$ This powered flight priority was a joke almost from the beginning; it was pushed during the times when it was "politically correct" (literally!) to claim that anything of value was invented in Russia. Invention of radio had a slightly better standing. $\endgroup$
    – Zeus
    Jun 30, 2020 at 1:22

1 Answer 1


Here is a partial translation of a Russian article about the history of semiconductors (part that addresses Soviet contributions):

1948-1950. Not only in the United States, but also in other countries there have been scientific research in the field of semiconductors. For instance, a Soviet physicist V.E. Loshkarev as early as in 1946 discovered the bipolar diffusion of nonequilibrium current carriers in semiconductors. A.V.Krasilov and his group designed germanium diodes for radar stations. [Presumably still classified research] in Fryazino (Moscow region) in the Research Institute-160 (Research Institute "Istok"). A.V.Krasilov and S.G.Madoyan first observed the transistor effect. The creators of the domestic transistor A.V.Krasilov and S.G.Madoyan published the first article in the USSR on transistors, "Crystal Triode." Laboratory samples of germanium transistors were developed by B.M.Vul, A.V.Rzhanov, V.S.Vavilov, and others (FIAN), V.M.Tuchkevich, D.N.Nasledov (LPTI), S.G. Kalashnikov, N.A. Penin and others (IRE USSR AS)...

1960s. In the USSR in 1963 the Center for Microelectronics was established in Zelenograd. A Soviet engineer F.A. Shchigol developed a planar transistor 2T312 and its open-ended analogue 2T319, which became the main active element of hybrid circuits. In 1964, the Angstrem plant at the Research Institute of Precision Technology created the first integrated circuit IC-"Path" with 20 elements on the crystal, performing the function of transistor logic with resistive connections. At NIIME in Zelenograd technology was created and the first planar transistors "Ploskost" were launched. Under the direction of B.V. Malin at NII-35 (nowadays the scientific research institute "Pulsar"), the first series of silicon integrated circuits TS-100 (degree of integration - 37 elements on the crystal) was created. In 1966, the first experimental station for the production of planar integrated circuits began operating at the Pulsar Research Institute. At the NIIME the group of Dr. Valieva, started production of logical and linear integrated circuits. In 1968, the Pulsar Research Institute produced a batch of first hybrid thin-film ICs with planar, open-frame transistors of the types KD910, KD911, KT318 intended for television, radio broadcasting and communications. Digital and linear ICs of mass application (series 155) were developed in the Research Institute of ME. In 1969, a Soviet physicist Zh. I. Alferov formulated and practically realized his ideas for controlling electron and light fluxes in classical heterostructures based on the gallium arsenide arsenide system. Digital and linear ICs of mass application (series 155) were developed in the Research Institute of ME.

There is a fascinating story of two Soviet spies, Barr and Sarant, who were at the origin of foundation of the "Soviet Silicon Valley" in Zelinograd in 1963 (see above); it is discussed in this wikipedia article and in much more detail in Usdin's book that I liked quite a bit when I read it few years ago:

Steven T. Usdin, Engineering Communism: How Two Americans Spied for Stalin And Founded the Soviet Silicon Valley, Yale University Press, 2005, hardcover, ISBN 0-300-10874-5.

  • $\begingroup$ interesting article .....transistor in 1946 by Russia ...did I read that right...help me out. Why didn't the Russians share a Nobel Prize....any comments appreciated..... nice article by the way $\endgroup$
    – Sedumjoy
    Aug 3, 2017 at 14:21
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    $\begingroup$ @Sedumjoy For that I can only speculate. Maybe the Nobel Prize Committee was unaware of their research? Maybe because this research was classified and did not affect the practical development ? ... This would require me to dig much more into this than I have time for. $\endgroup$ Aug 3, 2017 at 17:08

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