One of Einstein's famous quotes is "God does not play dice", referring to his dislike of the probabilistic model of the universe, as found by quantum theory. However, in the book "Quantum Mechanics: The Theoretical Minimum", the author notes that Einstein was actually the first to propose that quanta of light are governed by probabilistic rules.

So what happened to Einstein that made him go completely against his earlier ideas, given that the majority of the scientific community were in favour of quantum theory?

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    $\begingroup$ Possible duplicate of Why did Einstein oppose quantum uncertainity? Using probabilistic methods to compensate for our lack of knowledge is quite different from accepting quantum uncertainty written into the fabric of the universe. To Einstein we are forced to play dice, "God", i.e. the universe, need not and does not. $\endgroup$
    – Conifold
    Commented Sep 10, 2017 at 19:29

1 Answer 1


Einstein did not go against his earlier ideas. The probabilistic rules that the author may be referring to is the use of statistical methods of physics to account for the myriad of particles involved (e.g. as used in kinetic theory and other developments also used by Planck in his earlier work on black body radiation).

Rather, from my brief review of the book, the author presents Einstein's objections to quantum entanglement as his major complaint of quantum mechanics. Indeed, every index reference to Einstein in the OP's referenced book is on the topic of quantum entanglement.


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