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There are many textbooks which states mathematical theorems, but in them, by whom and when the theorems are discovered is not explained.

Do you know good references for this?

If this scope is too broad, I limit the topic to elementary geometry.

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    $\begingroup$ Any good history book — e.g. for geometry, Heath (Vol. 1, Vol. 2). $\endgroup$ – Francois Ziegler Nov 25 '17 at 13:41
  • $\begingroup$ I like Men of Math by E.T Bell. The introductory abstract algebra textbook by Gallian also incorporates a fair bit of historical content into the text $\endgroup$ – Prince M Nov 26 '17 at 22:39
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Such books are called "history of mathematics". Of course one book will not tell you the origin of every theorem, mathematics is too large, you have to search in many books.

On the subject of elementary geometry, one good book is Florian Cajori, History of elementaty mathematics.

Interestingly, most of the elementary geometry is not of ancient Greek origin. Euclid only laid the foundation of the subject, and his immediate successors were more interested in the more advanced subjects (like conic sections, integration etc.) Most of the existing body of "elementary geometry" was discovered in 19th century.

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