# When did statistics become an integral part of physics?

When you study Newtonian physics in introductory classes, the equations don't include any statistical indications, such as error, etc.

However modern physics articles indicate statistical properties of their theories and equations.

When did the physics community recognize the need to include statistics in the mathematical description of reality?

• A nit: statistics are used in the measurement of reality, not in the description/model thereof. Until you get to quantum physics, we accept that a brick has exact dimensions but we can only measure to a certain uncertainty – Carl Witthoft Jan 31 '18 at 12:54
• @CarlWitthoft Probability in at least a frequentist sense mattered in many-body systems treatments such as 19th-century thermodynamics. The main thing quantum mechanics added was not to so much probability as $L^2$ rules for it. – J.G. Feb 1 '18 at 7:30