The OED defines "iatromathematics" as
Practising medicine in conjunction with astrology.
Pre-17th century, it seems most scientists (physicians included) believed in the influence of the stars on the terrestrial world, so it would seem ancient medicine took the influence of the stars into account. Is this true?
The OED also says iatromathematics was
a school of physicians which arose in Italy in the 17th century, whose system of physiology and medicine was founded on the principles of mathematics and mechanics.
Who founded this school?
Explaining how astrology can make what today we call statistical associations, St. Thomas Aquinas writes (Summa Theologica II-II q. 95 a. 5 ad 2):
astrologers not unfrequently forecast the truth by observing the stars…because a great number of men follow their bodily passions, so that their actions are for the most part (in pluribus) disposed in accordance with the inclination of the heavenly bodies: while there are few, namely, the wise (sapientes) alone, who moderate these inclinations by their reason. The result is that astrologers in many cases foretell the truth, especially in public occurrences which depend on the multitude (ex multitudine).
Thus, it would seem that today's evidence-based medicine (EBM), which views "disease as statistical associations at a population level" (Chin-Yee 2014 p. 921), is the modern version of iatromathematics or "astrology" ("statistical associations at a population level") being practiced in conjunction with medicine.
Is EBM and its viewing "disease as statistical associations at a population level" the end-result of the historical development of iatromathematics (astrology applied to medicine)?