The wave and the particle (or corpuscular) theories of light go back to the 17-th century and are often associated with Huygens and Newton, respectively, as their founders. What preceeded them was called geometric optics, where light consisted of rays connecting an eye to an object. There were two theories in geometric optics too. According to the emission theory rays of light came out of our eyes and "sensed" objects in a way similar to touch, Hero and Ptolemy supported this theory. According to the intromission theory it was objects that emanated the light, Aristotle and Galen favored this version. Mathematically both theories are equivalent for optical phenomena, and essentially reduce optics to geometry except where the refraction law is concerned. More historical details are given here.
The "particles" of light are photons rather than electrons, and although "wave-particle duality" is a popular way to explain their nature it is rather inaccurate, the real duality would have produced a pilot wave theory. The accepted model is quantum electrodynamics developed in late 1940-s, that describes also other forms of electromagnetism, and in the first approximation quantum mechanics. While photons do have some properties of waves and some of particles they do not have all, and they also have some properties (such as entanglement) that neither of the two has.