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I think that The Zodiacal signs are of Vedic origin. Hindus, Greeks and Sumerians all have Zodiacal signs. Which is the most likely origin?

The middle ring is the zodiac in the same between India and Greece.The outer ring is the same as the Greek one for Sumer. The inner ring in the sumerian one have different images and the Vedic Zodiac there are star names and their represtbtations(the Vedic kalachaka).Later on the Hindus added another star ring displaced with respect to the third ring to make a fourth ring. The middle ring is the same for both India and Greece. In the Kalchakra, the stars are arranged in a specific way. 27 stars cover 360 degrees, starting at Meena (also Fish in the Zodiac).

In the Sumerian case the inner 7 segments match at Scorpio. from

https://shrifreedom.org/freedoms_vedic_zodiac/

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    $\begingroup$ Is there archaeological support for the claim that the Sumerians had signs of the zodiac? The conventional view, as far as I can tell, is that the division of the zodiac into 12 signs happened in Babylon in the middle of the first millennium BCE. Sumer was long gone at that point. See J.H. Rogers, Origins of the ancient constellations: I. The Mesopotamian traditions, Journal of the British Astronomical Association 108 9-28. $\endgroup$ – Will Orrick May 7 at 18:03
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    $\begingroup$ Also possibly useful, especially for the interaction among different cultures: D. Pingree, Astronomy and astrology in India and Iran Isis 54 229-246. $\endgroup$ – Will Orrick May 7 at 18:05
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"We present now the basis to our identification of the names of the nakshtras from the Rgveda in a form easier to read:

Vaishaka = Swathi to Anuradha = Vayu, Indragni, Mitra= Vrsa, Bull for Indra, e.g. RV 8.33; also Vayu is some- times identified with Indra and the two together called Indravayu, and Vayu is also associated with cow (RV 1.134)

Iyasta Anuradha to Mula = Mitra, Varuna, Pitarah. = Mithuna, Gemini, from the cosmic embrace of Mitra and Varuna Ashada = OurvaAsada to Srona = Apaha., Visvedevaha., Vishnu = Karka, circle or Cancer, the sign of Visnu”s chakra (e.g. RV 1.155.6)

Shravana Srona to Shatabhisaj = Vishnu, Vasavah, Indra = Simha, Lion, after Indra as in RV 4.16.14

Bhadrapada = Shatabhisaj to UProshthapada = Indra, Aja Ekapada,

Ahirbudhnya= Kanya, Virgin, apparently from Aryaman in the opposite side of the zodiac who is the wooer of maidens, kanya (RV 5.3.2)

Asvina = UProsthapada to Asvayujau = Ahirbudhnya, Pusan, Asvayujau = Tula, Libra, from the Asvins who denote balance of pairs (e.g. RV 2.39, 5.78, 8.35)

K ̄artika = Apabharanı to Rohini = Yama, Agni, Prajapati = Ali (Vrshchika), Scorpion, from Krttika, to cut

Margasırsa = Rohini to Ardra = Prajapati, Soma, Rudra = Dhanus., Archer, from the cosmic archer Rudra (RV 2.33, 5.42, 10.125)

Pausha = Ardra to Pushya = Rudra, Aditi, Brhaspati = Makara, Goat, Rudra placing goat-head on Prajapati, and goat is the main animal sacrificed at the ritual of which Bruhaspati is the priest

Magha = Pushya to Magha = Bruhaspati, Sarpah. , Pitarah. = Kumbha, Water-bearer, from the water-pot offerings to the pitrus.

Phalguna = Phalgunıs to Hasta = Aryaman, Bhaga, Savitar = Mina, Fish, representing Bhaga (alluded to in RV 10.68)

Caitra = Hasta to Svati = Savitar, Indra, Vayu = Mesha, Ram, from Indra, see, e.g., RV 1.51

We observe that for most solar zodiac segments a plausible name emerges from the name of the deity. The choice of the symbols was also governed by another constraint. The Brahmana texts call the year as the sacrifice and associate different animals with it.21 the short sequence, these animals are goat, sheep, bull, horse, and man. Beginning with the goat-dragon at number 9 in the sequence starting with Vaishakha, we have sheep at 12, bull at 1, horse (also another name for the sun in India) as the sun-disk at 3, and man as archer at 8.

The kalachkra (Zodiacal signs) are most likely of Hindu origin because they conform to Vedic gods and myths.

from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.695.536&rep=rep1&type=pdf

by Subash Kak The Astronomical Code of the Ṛgveda (Third Edition)

archaeoastronomy ancient

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    $\begingroup$ You probably know this, but Kak's views are extremely controversial, and his work has been criticized for its methodology. $\endgroup$ – Will Orrick May 7 at 18:07
  • $\begingroup$ Do you have anything specific to say other than "Kak's views are extremely controversial" ? $\endgroup$ – Partha Shakkottai May 7 at 20:37
  • $\begingroup$ No. I am not an expert. I just wanted to point out in case you (or future readers) were unaware, that the majority of academic historians who study India do not agree with Kak's conclusions. $\endgroup$ – Will Orrick May 7 at 21:30
  • $\begingroup$ @WillOrrick, these are ficticious stories written in this century. One can only wish if someone could find a single translated book into Latin or any other European book which enlightened the whole Europe from ancient India. Don't think there is a single original copy in any library on this Earth to support whatever Mr. Kak is claiming. $\endgroup$ – M. Farooq May 7 at 23:51
  • $\begingroup$ The Vedas were used in ceremonies every day and are accurately remembered. You should listen to Vedaparayana ceremony (Veda chanting) performed even to this day.These extraordinary retention techniques guaranteed the most perfect canon not just in terms of unaltered word order but also in terms of sound.[9] That these methods have been effective, is testified to by the preservation of the most ancient Indian religious text, the Ṛgveda (ca. 1500 BCE)." fromhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vedic_chant $\endgroup$ – Partha Shakkottai May 9 at 18:18

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