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Questions tagged [academia]

For questions about academic institutions, their members and other topics connected to the social process of scientific work and the interaction among students, scholars and other practitioners of science and mathematics.

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8 votes
1 answer
360 views

What did the study plan of an early 20th century mathematics undergraduate program look like?

I am interested in what subjects and activities mathematics undergrads were involved in the beginning of the 20th century. Most subjects mathematics majors study at an intermediate and advanced level ...
5 votes
1 answer
643 views

What is the largest academic genealogy tree that we know of?

Many famous scientists are connected by their doctorate advisor-student relations. I wonder if we know which is the largest continuous chain of famous researchers. I have checked pages like ...
3 votes
0 answers
43 views

Resources to learn about the state of academia in the early 1900s?

Was not sure if I could ask this in the Academia Stack Exchange as the question is a little bit meta, so HSM looked like a more appropriate place. Apologies if that's not the case. There is currently ...
9 votes
2 answers
342 views

Quantitative measures of rise and decline of scientific fields over time (beyond number of publications)

I'm interested in the birth / death / life cycle of scientific fields over time, and looking for quantitative metrics that suggest whether a particular scientific field is in decline. A simple and ...
13 votes
5 answers
1k views

What major areas of mathematics have been abandoned?

It seems that the focus of mathematical research moves on every so often, and some areas are not proven wrong, but have just become uninteresting in the current mathematical culture. I was under the ...
8 votes
2 answers
2k views

How did Wittgenstein fulfill eligibility requirements for a PhD in philosophy without having a Bachelor's degree in philosophy?

The Wikipedia article about Wittgenstein says: In Norway it was clear that Moore was expected to act as Wittgenstein's secretary, taking down his notes, with Wittgenstein falling into a rage when ...
19 votes
3 answers
2k views

What was the last important scientific work written in Latin?

In a recent post on math.se, I suggested that G. Peano's Arithmetices principia, nova methodo exposita (1889) was probably the last important scientific work written in Latin. This work set forth the ...
10 votes
1 answer
975 views

When did plagiarism become a major misconduct in academia?

...and what was the general view on it before? Plagiarism in modern day academia is totally prohibited, and people doing such a misconduct would be banned from academia, or would at least get into ...
4 votes
1 answer
153 views

What did scientific research look like during the colonial era of British America?

Since Europe has had numerous people in various fields make several contributions over the centuries, was the same nature of study and academia reflected in the colonies of the western hemisphere? ...
13 votes
2 answers
1k views

Why did Einstein stop publishing so many papers in Annalen der Physik?

In his early years (actually, straight through the early 1910s), Albert Einstein published a lot of papers in Annalen der Phyisk, a very old and prominent German scientific journal. However, this ...
31 votes
2 answers
824 views

Was fake/rigged data common prior to the 20th century?

In one of the lab courses I took as an undergraduate, I remember that the professor noted while discussing some statistical test (almost certainly chi-squared) that one could use it to show that a lot ...
2 votes
0 answers
83 views

Is there an objective way to measure how significant a discovery has been?

When the Nobel prize or Fields Medal gets awarded, I believe one of the criteria is the impact the discoveries have been. My question is, whether there are any objective ways to measure the impact? It ...
5 votes
2 answers
348 views

For many years, were Emmy Noether and Helene Braun the only female mathematicians to obtain habilitation at Göttingen University?

Emmy Noether was the first woman in Germany to obtain habilitation in 1919. But I remember to have heard in the debate concerning the situation of women in academic mathematics that took place on the ...
10 votes
1 answer
361 views

Why did 92% of cases of simultaneous discovery in the 17th century end in dispute?

I read on http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Academic_publishing : One of the earliest research journals is the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, created in the 17th century. At that ...
12 votes
0 answers
302 views

What was the typical format of a 16th century mathematical debate?

In The Equation that Couldn't be Solved, Mario Livio writes of academia in 16th century Bologna. Apparently, mathematicians would take part in public debates, sometimes involving solving problems. ...
5 votes
0 answers
105 views

Physics Curricula of 19th Century French Universities?

What were the physics curricula for 19th century French universities? I am looking for something akin to this distribution of courses at the École Polytechnique, but for other French universities, ...
15 votes
2 answers
272 views

When did anonymous peer review appear and what were the motivations behind it?

The peer-review process is old. I wonder when anonymous peer review appeared and more importantly what the motivations behind it were (vs. non-anonymous peer review).
13 votes
1 answer
336 views

Who blocked publication of "Mathematics in USSR. 1958-1967"?

A while ago, in USSR there were published two very voluminous collections entitled "Mathematics in USSR for 30 years. 1917-1947" and "Mathematics in USSR for 40 years. 1917-1957". These collections ...
3 votes
0 answers
91 views

Were any tobacco industry funded studies published in peer reviewed journals?

It is well known that the tobacco industry used the tactic of funding research which would come to conclusions that were in their interests, even though it contested other research findings. ...
6 votes
1 answer
655 views

How did 19th century physicists do their undergraduate/graduate studies?

I have read that In 1847, he became aware of physicist James Prescott Joule’s argument for the mutual convertibility of heat and mechanical work and for their mechanical equivalence. We study ...
2 votes
0 answers
63 views

What was the structure of first course in sociology?

I read that Max Weber supported the anti-positivist approach to sociology in Ludwig Maxmilian University of Munich. So I want to know the academic structure of the first course he appealed for. I ...
3 votes
0 answers
76 views

Which kinds of academic revolutions has philosophy of science indentified so far and when?

Recently, I had an interdisciplinary discussion with some friends about Industry 4.0, internet of things,...which brought up the question, which kind of academic revolutions apart from industrial ...
1 vote
0 answers
199 views

At what point did Calculus become a required field of study for aspiring scientists?

Nowadays, it's nearly impossible to obtain a university degree in a scientific discipline without completing at least some basic coursework in Calculus, and often times advanced courses are required. ...
49 votes
6 answers
9k views

How did German become the language of science?

Recently, I read an interesting article about how English replaced German as the language in which scientists communicate. But how did German become the leading language in the first place? In the ...
7 votes
1 answer
76 views

Latin academic positions

I was wondering if there was a standard system, at some point in history, for academic positions in Latin. What I mean is that today each country has a standard system that names each academic ...
7 votes
2 answers
1k views

Are ancient African mathematicians acknowledged in the history of mathematics?

I have yet to read a math book that mentions ancient African mathematicians at any length or level of detail. There is scant coverage in academic settings in the United States, perhaps elsewhere too. ...
14 votes
2 answers
356 views

What are the earliest accounts of publication bias?

Publication bias is a huge issue is some academic fields. What are the earliest accounts of publication bias? As requested in the comments, publication bias intuitively means that if you read one ...
2 votes
0 answers
135 views

Why has the proportion of women in computer science degrees declined in the USA?

Source In the United States, for most majors, the proportion of women either increased or stayed static. By contrast, the proportion of women in computer science declined from a peak of 37% in 1983 ...
5 votes
0 answers
64 views

How did research reproducibility in medicine evolve over time?

Some recent studies have analyzed the percentage of research that is reproducible. E.g. Prinz, F.; Schlange, T.; Asadullah, K. (2011). "Believe it or not: How much can we rely on published data on ...
8 votes
1 answer
79 views

How did journal subscriptions evolve over time, and what factors account for it?

Nowadays, many academic journals have some impressively high subscription costs. E.g. Harvard's expenditures for library resources in 2012 was $16,391,638. How did journal subscriptions evolve over ...
10 votes
1 answer
587 views

What is the history behind the Erdős number?

The Erdős number is used as a tool to study how mathematicians cooperate to find answers to unsolved problems. But what is the history behind the Erdős number?
13 votes
3 answers
2k views

Why isn't there a Nobel prize in Mathematics?

While I have heard speculative answers to this question, I do not know one which can be supported. Is there any information explaining why Nobel did not chose to include this topic? Has there even ...
14 votes
1 answer
144 views

Have reviewers never been paid?

Nowadays researchers are generally not paid to review research articles. Has it always been the case? If not, how come it has changed?