Questions tagged [arithmetic]

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14 votes
3 answers
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What does this cover of a 1508 German book on arithmetic depict?

In a 1508 German book on arithmetic for merchants, this image appears on the cover (high resolution and context here): What is this depicting? Who are these people and what are their roles? In ...
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  • 421
1 vote
0 answers
63 views

Does arithmetic go back before 2000 BC [duplicate]

There are various documents stating that arithmetic was first seen in 2000 BC, but wondered whether if there were any signs of it before?
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  • 11
0 votes
1 answer
154 views

Is multiplication postulated axiomatically in Peano arithmetic?

I figured this question is better suited to this stackexchange. I give some mathematical details, but this is primarily an HSM question. According to this post, the existence of multiplication in ...
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4 votes
2 answers
267 views

Why did the romans use IV and why doesn't it overcomplicate things?

Ok so if the Romans did not use things like IX and IV and XC etcetera then addition and subtraction would be almost as instant as it is in our number system. However with the new system it seems to me ...
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1 vote
1 answer
128 views

Was the idea that the result of division of positive number by negative number should be negative ever been controversial?

If we divide a positive number by another positive number, the result becomes greater as the divisor becomes smaller. If we continue this logic, division by a negative number should be greater than ...
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  • 598
4 votes
0 answers
110 views

Where is First-Order Peano Arithmetic first clearly formulated?

I really should know this, but ... When/where/by whom was first-order Peano Arithmetic first clearly and explicitly formulated in a recognizably modern form (perhaps exact notation apart) -- with the ...
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6 votes
2 answers
417 views

Did Archimedes view fractions as "numbers"?

For quite some time I had the wrong impression that classical Greek mathematicians didn't use fractions. (I don't remember where I had this from.) But I recently looked into Heath's book about ...
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