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Questions tagged [artificial-intelligence]

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12 votes
2 answers

Did Turing invent the imitation game? Did he name it?

In his 1950 paper in Mind titled "Computer Machinery and Intelligence" which introduces the test that now bears his name, Alan Turing starts by describing a game which he calls the "Imitation Game", ...
3 votes
0 answers

Who were the major thinkers before Turing to ask whether machines can think? How come Turing's Test lasted as the influential one?

Turing Test has often been referred to both in academia and outside it when talking about AI. Yet there were I suppose many more thinkers except for Turing, possibly Descartes among them, that dealt ...
0 votes
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Did Turing ever mention Protagoras regarding the Imitation Game?

Based on the period when Turing went to school, it is fairly inconceivable he was not well familiar with Protagoras, and the statement that: "Man is the measure of all things" *I asked a question ...
0 votes
0 answers

Was Nimatron the first AI?

As I understand it, the first true algorithmic intelligences were designed to engage humans in combinatorial playgames. There is a patent for Nimatron filed by Westinghouse Electric in 1940, which ...
6 votes
0 answers

history of backpropagation

Has anybody read or have access to Alex Andrew Significance Feedback in Neural Nets Report of Biological Computer Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL GM-10718-03 TR No 5 September ...
12 votes
0 answers

Why are the classic statistical approaches to NLP mostly generative models while the most recent ones are mostly discriminative?

Looking at the classic statistical approaches to natural language processing (e.g. tagging, parsing, etc.), I see that they are mostly generative models: n-gram models, Naive Bayes classifiers, hidden ...
15 votes
6 answers

Why were so many artificial intelligence founders so optimistic?

1954: The Georgetown experiment in 1954 involved fully automatic translation of more than sixty Russian sentences into English. The authors claimed that within three or five years, machine translation ...
1 vote
1 answer

Did Turing ideas make any impact on Psychology or Brain Science? Why?

Some authors, namely Daniel Dennett and Douglas Hofstadter, argue that anything capable of passing the Turing test is necessarily conscious (Hofstadter, D. R., & Dennett, D. C. (2006). The Mind's ...
6 votes
1 answer

Evolution of performances in natural language processing tasks

Is there any plots, etc. that show performance metrics on various natural language processing tasks as a function of year. For example the following figure shows the evolution of performance of face ...