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Questions tagged [atomic-theory]

For questions about the history and origin of atomic models and atomic theory. Topics include the classical Greek atomism and the development towards the atom models of Dalton and Rutherford.

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What work did Hideki Yukawa do during the Second World War?

Yukawa received a Nobel Prize in 1949 for predicting the pi meson but while in Japan he published his theory which explained the interaction between protons and neutrons in 1935. What work did he do ...
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The Discovery of Atoms

It is not at all obvious that atoms exist and there's no reason why there should be an indivisible unit of matter. Is there an experiment that was conducted which gave strong evidence for the ...
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Before the discovery of the neutron, how did scientists explain standard atomic weights?

The neutron was predicted in 1920 and discovered 12 years later. Before this time, how did scientists explain standard atomic weights? For example, Lithium has a standard atomic weight of about 6.9 ...
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To what extent were the scientists involved in the Manhattan project aware of the goals?

I want to understand the extent to which scientists and technicians employed in the Manhattan project understood that they were building a bomb that would kill hundreds of thousands of people. ...
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Is there any history into the methodology that Balmer used for the spectral line formula?

What I am referring to is the Balmer formula as it appears in Wikipedia. To come up with this series by trial and error along with its constants is asking a little too much but I can't understand how ...
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In what sense did J.J. Thompson split the atom?

I am a little confused on who first split the atom. Wikipedia says that J.J Thomspon did with his cathode ray tube experiments. In what sense does this split the atom? But then it also says ...
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Is this quote from James Gleick about the Manhattan project accurate?

In his book 'Chaos' he says, 'In theory the WWII atomic bomb project was a problem in nuclear physics. In reality the nuclear physics had been mostly solved before the project began, and the business ...
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History of molecular constituency and structure

During times when there was no spectroscopy of any kind, people did make guesses on the molecular constituency and structure. For example, John Dalton's original atomic hypothesis was that all ...
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How was proton determined to be a common component of all atoms?

Based on what I know of the discovery of positive charges, Thompson measured the $e/m$ ratio of various nuclei and their $e/m$ ratio (charge-to-mass ratio) was not constant. People did not know ...
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Who first noticed violation of aufbau principle of elements like Cr, Cu, Pd, Au, and how?

It is often referred to as 'anomalous electron configurations' or 'unusual order of filling of orbitals' of a few elements e.g. Cr, Cu, Nb, Mo, Ru, Rh, Pd, Au etc.
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Hidden agenda of the Galileo trial?

Redondi argued that Galileo's trial on heliocentrism was merely a show trial concealing the real objection against Galileo among the catholic establishment, which was his atomism thought to be at ...
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Atomic models in the 1910's and early 1920's [duplicate]

The Rutherford model that invalidated the plum pudding model occured in 1909, while the first model for quantum mechanics was around 1924, leaving a period of 15 years without an adequate model for ...
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Was there any atomic model(s) that came between Bohr's and the actual beginning of Quantum Mechanics in early 20s?

Well, the question arose in the physics chat when slereah mentioned about it. So, was there any prominent model that came to light after Bohr and before the actual beginning of Quantum Mechanics in ...
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Was Thomson's model of Plum Pudding widely accepted as a model of atom?

Was this model widely accepted in the time as a model for the atom? or was it just a model between many alternatives?
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Did anybody question the indivisibility of the atom because there were “too many” elements?

The realisation that the atom was divisible, and thus that elements were not the "fundamental building blocks" arguably began around 1897 with J. J. Thomson's discovery of the electron and proceeded ...
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Were there alternative names for electron orbitals?

Electrons orbits are referred to as s, p, d, and f, then alphabetically. These stand for sharp, principal, diffuse and fundamental respectively (or maybe the German translations). Was any other ...
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Why did the “old quantum theory” start off considering circular electron orbits?

It seems that both Bohr and Rutherford assumed circular orbits of electrons around the atom. But why did they do so, instead of assuming e.g. elliptical orbits?
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What is the historical reasoning for electron orbital names?

Electron orbitals are referred to as s, p, d and f. I have read that there was a Latinate basis for this, but never found anything more specific. (Obviously, the discovery of electron orbitals by Bohr ...
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When was atomism first considered a scientific theory?

Of course it is difficult, if not impossible, to know whether classical philosophers that talked about atomism thought that "atoms" could be manipulated by men. However, I was startled to know that ...