Skip to main content

Questions tagged [chemistry]

For questions about the study of chemical reactions, dynamics and related phenomena

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
0 votes
0 answers
37 views

Körner-Contardi reaction: Lost to history?

When we talk about synthesizing aryl halides, the more famous reaction is Friedel-Crafts halogenation which is still used commercially to produce chlorobenzene. If we consider synthesis through ...
Nilay Ghosh's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
42 views

How does the daguerrotype give directly a positive image?

I have already asked this question in the Chemistry community, but since daguerrotype is an old, obsolete technique, I hope this question can be considered as on-topic also here, to increase my ...
Alfred's user avatar
  • 182
3 votes
0 answers
76 views

What is the oldest way to measure the voltage?

What is the oldest way to measure the voltage? I mean the experimental way or apparatus.
Coo's user avatar
  • 131
2 votes
0 answers
38 views

Why are the terms electrophile/nucleophile used? Are they not identical to Lewis acids/bases?

My understanding is that the above pairs of terms are identical in definition, indicating acceptors/donors of an electron pair. So, why are both used?
imrobert's user avatar
  • 195
4 votes
2 answers
452 views

Who was the inventor of the 18-electron rule?

According to Wikipedia, the first person who proposed 18-electron rule was American chemist Irving Langmuir, but the rule is widely known by the name Sidgwick's rule. I cannot find any information ...
Seiji's user avatar
  • 143
0 votes
0 answers
118 views

A brief history of "delocalization" of electrons

I have been studying the concepts of "resonance" and "mesomerism" recently and a common principle of these concepts is the "delocalization" (of electrons, molecular ...
Bhavya Jain's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
146 views

Were molecules called atoms in the 19th century?

E.g. a quote from Justus von Liebig, 17th Chemical Letter, 1858, in German: Wir können ein Stück Zucker, auch wenn wir es noch so fein reiben, nicht flüssig machen, noch viel weniger können wir durch ...
viuser's user avatar
  • 181
4 votes
2 answers
199 views

History and origin of the Iso-, Sec-, Tert- and Neo- prefixes?

I have studied the prefixes "Iso-", "Sec-", "Tert-" and "Neo-" for a long time in chemistry but wonder where they originate from i.e. where is the place (the ...
Bhavya Jain's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
259 views

What is the history of the classification of states of matter?

In my school curriculum, and in many standard presentations such as Wikipedia, it is claimed that there are four fundamental states of matter: solids, liquids, gases, and plasmas. How was this list ...
Rococo's user avatar
  • 41
4 votes
1 answer
580 views

How do we know Hennig Brand's name?

The story of Hennig Brand discovering the element phosphorous is often repeated without citation, and there doesn't seem to be much scholarship about Brand in particular (although the history of the ...
Sam Gallagher's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
96 views

Kekulé and his discovery of benzene

“I was sitting writing at my textbook, but the work did not progress; my thoughts were elsewhere. I turned my chair to the fire, and dozed. Again the atoms were gamboling before my eyes. This time the ...
Harikrishnan M's user avatar
8 votes
1 answer
314 views

How did the concept of pH originate and develop?

Background & My research To begin I did some research to find a few articles on the history of pH namely "The Symbol for pH"- William B. Jensen, "One-Hundred Years of pH" - ...
Bhavya Jain's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
135 views

In JJ Thomson's cathode ray experiment I need values for the electric field and magnetic field when net force on the cathode beam = 0

I asked here as well https://chemistry.stackexchange.com/questions/177889/in-jj-thomsons-cathode-ray-experiment-why-is-effects-of-gravity-on-electron-not https://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/...
Saif's user avatar
  • 43
0 votes
1 answer
125 views

A summary of Major events in Pre-Modern Atomist Philosophy of Chemistry [closed]

When I started learning about Laws related to "constant proportions" and other hypothesis like "all matter is composed of smallest indivisible particles", I didn't notice it was ...
Dheeraj Gujrathi's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
51 views

What substances from the body did Boyle try when attempting to produce phosphorus?

According to Wikipedia, Hennig Brand discovered phosphorous. Later, Robert Boyle desired to replicate Brand's discovery, but didn't know that urine was used - only that it involved something that &...
ajd138's user avatar
  • 101
1 vote
0 answers
25 views

Is there info on how Mayans invented hard rubber?

I know they had balls from the rubber trees mixed with morning glory flowers. A technology that was lost when the European colonizers came. But was there any info on who made this discovery and how?
user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
184 views

What values of Avogadro's Number did Jean Perrin come up with?

I am currently plundering the contents of the $1969$ reprint of the 2nd edition of Data and Formulae for Engineering Students published by Pergamon International (authors J.C. Anderson, D.M. Hum, B.G. ...
Prime Mover's user avatar
  • 1,289
1 vote
1 answer
70 views

What is the iodine fax process mentioned in Vannevar Bush's "As we may think"?

What is the iodine fax process mentioned in Vannevar Bush's "As we may think"? Another process now in use is also slow, and more or less clumsy. For fifty years impregnated papers have been ...
MaudPieTheRocktorate's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
86 views

First time equilibrium notation was used

I was wondering when was the first time that a chemist wrote a chemical equilibrium with the $\rightleftharpoons$ symbol. And if it was before or after Arrhenius's dissociation theory.
David Moldes's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
198 views

Are there substances that were initially thought to be elements but are actually compounds?

I am wondering what are good examples of substances that were initially thought to be elements but then were found out to be compounds. How exactly were these substances found to be compounds?
Maximal Ideal's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
367 views

Were scientific discoveries ever inspired by art?

We can often see art that is influenced by science, be it in paintings, music, novels or movies. But has any idea from the arts ever influenced a scientist to come up with a new discovery or idea?
Brain Stroke Patient's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
51 views

When was the hydrogen's absolute mass found first in history?

When was hydrogen's absolute mass i.e, in Kg, was found for the first time. What method was used and what information from earlier researches were used for it? Also was there any method at that time ...
Arsenal Creation's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
135 views

How did Thomson claim that charge on hydrogen ion was equal to charge on electron without knowing charge on electron?

From "The Electron" by J. J. Thomson, published in The Scientific Monthly Vol. 20, No. 2 (Feb., 1925), pp. 113-115 https://www.jstor.org/stable/7115 [Continued discussion] previously ...
Arsenal Creation's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
94 views

Were oxocarbons other than carbon monoxide/dioxide always classified as organic compounds?

The simplest and most common oxocarbons are carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The general consensus is that they are inorganic (see: Is carbon dioxide organic or inorganic?). The other ...
Nilay Ghosh's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
198 views

How and when did scientists first determine that hydrogen was the lightest element?

Cavendish first isolated hydrogen and recognized it for what it was; Lavoisier realized that water consisted of hydrogen and oxygen; Dalton used hydrogen as the basis for relative atomic weights by ...
Gilbert Reid's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
468 views

Naturally occurring elements in other planets and their natural satellites other than earth [closed]

Naturally occurring elements Is it possible to find natural elements in other planets and their natural satellites other than planet earth?
Prashant Akerkar's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
101 views

Who coined the term "sulphuretted hydrogen"?

Hydrogen sulfide was previously named "sulphuretted hydrogen" but I can't find the person who named/coined it. Although Carl Wilhelm Scheele is credited to have discovered and isolated the ...
Nilay Ghosh's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
113 views

When Was The Leidenfrost Effect First Demonstrated By Touching Molten Metal?

The Leidenfrost Effect is a described as follows on Wikipedia: The Leidenfrost effect is a physical phenomenon in which a liquid, close to a surface that is significantly hotter than the liquid's ...
azoundria's user avatar
  • 101
2 votes
0 answers
512 views

When was the term "Sparingly soluble" first introduced in chemistry?

This question is inspired from: Why do we call salts such as AgCl sparingly soluble? The extent of solubility can be expressed as descriptive terms. U.S. Pharmacopoeia has made the following ...
Nilay Ghosh's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
130 views

How did they explain the radiation from hot objects at different wavelengths before the concept of atom was widely accepted?

I was reading about blackbody radiation and came across the following quote. Planck did not believe in atoms, nor did he think the second law of thermodynamics should be statistical because ...
PG1995's user avatar
  • 387
7 votes
1 answer
495 views

When was the geometric structure of a water molecule discovered?

How and when was water the structure of a water molecule (specifically the angles) discovered? Was it discovered by using a specific type of spectroscopy? I know you can derive these angles ...
Dan Barzilay's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
50 views

What molecule's models might Linus Pauling be holding up in this photo? Perhaps something akin to pentagonal dodecahedrane, or could they be viruses?

The Chemistry SE question What dodecahedral molecule is Linus Pauling likely holding in this photograph? Does it have 40 carbon atoms? begins: The video Quasicrystals ; Prof. Daniel Shechtman ; Nobel ...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 2,197
2 votes
1 answer
139 views

Element classification by Döbereiner and Newland (law of octaves)

I have been recently studying periodic classification. I am having some confusion regarding old periodic classification. Newland's law of octaves In that you can see, in the 4th horizontal line, ...
Suresh Chandra Pal's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
269 views

Were Michael Sendivogius findings in Chemistry considered by him to be Alchemy?

According to Michael Sendivogius Michael Sendivogius (/ˌsɛndɪˈvoʊdʒiəs/; Polish: Michał Sędziwój; 2 February 1566 – 1636) was a Polish alchemist, philosopher, and medical doctor. A pioneer of ...
Pablo's user avatar
  • 247
3 votes
1 answer
488 views

Did the medieval Islamic scholar al-Tusi state the principle of conservation of mass?

This article: Farid Alakbarli, A 13th-Century Darwin? Tusi's Views on Evolution, Azerbaijan International (2001) claims that Nasir al-Din al-Tusi (13th century) stated an early version of the law of ...
Mauricio's user avatar
  • 3,937
2 votes
1 answer
222 views

History of word gram-atom / gram-molecule?

The terms "gram-atom / gram-molecule" are obsolete nowadays in chemistry and got replaced by the concept of "mole/ Avogadro Number". But recently, I encountered a question that can ...
Deepak Arya's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
471 views

What rule or rules did Madelung discover, exactly?

There are two widely used rules of thumb to determine which subshells are filled in a neutral atom in its ground state: Electrons are assigned to subshells in order of increasing value of $n + \ell$. ...
John Baez's user avatar
  • 321
1 vote
1 answer
105 views

Why didn't Boyle made a correlation between V and T of a gas (and similarly between P and T)?

I was just reading about The Gas Laws of Boyle, Charles and Avogadro from a general college book Chemistry (7th edition, Zumdahl&Zumdahl). Boyle was the one who discovered a correlation between ...
thunder's user avatar
  • 111
0 votes
1 answer
111 views

What books did Lavoisier read?

I am interested in Antoine Lavoisier's intellectual formation/background. Is there any available list of the books which Antoine Lavoisier read, especially ones on science/mathematics/philosophy (even ...
AlexM's user avatar
  • 13
4 votes
2 answers
608 views

What is the evidence for the existence of Geber?

In an unrelated question, some users started arguing about the existence of Geber (Jabir ibn Hayyan - جابر بن حيّان) from 806−816 AD and pseudo-Geber (probably from 13th-14th century). This ...
Mauricio's user avatar
  • 3,937
2 votes
3 answers
1k views

When was mercury given its name?

The Wikipedia page for mercury says that it was named after the Roman god because of his speed and mobility. When did the name mercury start to be used to designate the metal?
usernumber's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
139 views

Books on history of biochemistry

I am looking for books on the history of biochemistry. Searching online there are some short articles that can be found, which just mention a few highlights, but I haven't really found more ...
AlexM's user avatar
  • 13
2 votes
1 answer
160 views

Did tobacco smoke confound the results of an experiment by entering a reaction with the subject of study?

I dimly remember watching a popular sciencie movie that mentioned an experiment conducted by a pair of great physisicists (Einstein was one of them, unless my memory is playing tricks on me) that had ...
gaazkam's user avatar
  • 131
6 votes
2 answers
387 views

How did Meyer know atomic volumes to plot them just before Mendeleev's periodic table?

Back to 1868, Mendeleev's periodic table has not been published yet, but we are quite there. As a scientist, you're still struggling to identify very clearly these elements with limited means. ...
user1556814's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
315 views

How is it possible that Pierre and Marie Curie's daughter Ève was so healthy?

I know that problems caused by radiation are pretty much random and unexpected at low levels of exposition but this randomness begins to be more probable when the exposition grows and this makes me ...
Hvjurthuk's user avatar
  • 109
1 vote
0 answers
168 views

How did Faraday determine the Faraday's constant?

Here is the reference. I'm wondering how he experimentally proceeded to derive the fact the if we pass 96485 Coulombs through a solution, then 1 gram equivalent of substance is electrolyzed.
ric.san's user avatar
  • 223
8 votes
2 answers
269 views

When was nicotine identified as an addictive substance?

I was watching a TV series (Godless) which is set in the Wild West in 1884. At some point they sing Don't forget the girls of LaBelle, which includes the following verses: The Creole girl is a one-...
user2891462's user avatar
3 votes
3 answers
460 views

Did C.S Peirce make any noteworthy contributions to physics or chemistry?

According to this article Peirce was the first to experimentally tie a unit, the meter, to an absolute standard, the wavelength of a spectral line Did C.S Peirce make any other noteworthy ...
GEP's user avatar
  • 1,525
0 votes
1 answer
212 views

Fritz Haber and nitrogen fixing: Was there a movement to increase the population?

I read a dramatic statistic something like 3 out of 5 living humans owe their existence to food that could be grown due to Haber's work. But was there a time when anyone said, we need to be able to ...
releseabe's user avatar
  • 1,193
3 votes
0 answers
91 views

Was the wide use of mercury in experiments in the 19th century related to alchemy?

We know that Newton's hair samples showed high level of mercury and of course he used mercury like crazy in his alchemy experiments (as did many/all alchemists not just in the west but also China) and ...
releseabe's user avatar
  • 1,193