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54 views

What are the Peirce's axioms of arithmetic and how do they relate to the Peano axioms?

I will be glad if someone who has seen Peirce's paper could summarily describe here Peirce's axioms and describe their relation to Peano's.
7
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1answer
194 views

What does an 100 year old calculus exam look like?

I wonder whether the questions on a calculus exam at university were easier or harder 100 years ago. Nowadays we have all these aids and different learning methods. I would love to see an old exam.
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70 views

When did telescopes become affordable?

There must have been a moment when most people had heard of telescopes, but they were only affordable by rich people or ship's captains. When did they first become affordable by the general public? ...
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0answers
44 views

Was Paul Nemenyi related to John Von Neumann?

I was looking at an article about the probable father of the former world chess champion Bob Fischer whose family's name was originally Neumann and I was wondering if he had a common ancestor with ...
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1answer
84 views

What is the official logo of the BIPM?

The logo on the BIPM's (International Bureau of Weights and Measures) site is this: However, when I visit the English (and, most importantly, French) Wikipedia articles on BIPM, and also when I ...
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2answers
140 views

Why did Richard Bellman, creator of dynamic programing say: 1950s were not good years for maths?

Richard Bellman said : "The 1950s were not good years for mathematical research. We had a very interesting gentleman in Washington named Wilson. He was Secretary of Defense, and he actually had ...
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1answer
68 views

Looking for the source of a quote in QFT history

Since it is a strictly physics-related quote i thought this was the best place to ask. It goes something like: "There are no particles, only fields", to which X replied "there are no ...
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0answers
25 views

Where did Curie's Law and Curie Constant appear for the first time?

I am trying to find where these concepts appear for the first time. In wikipedia articles, they don't show any date or references: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curie_constant , https://en.wikipedia....
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0answers
68 views

What's the history of experimentation by simulation? [closed]

How did the essemtial general purpose algorithms for simulations evolve over the past 50-100 years?
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1answer
62 views

What did the italian Nobel laureate Riccardo Giacconi think about the Multiverse hypothesis?

Riccardo Giacconi (1931-2018) was an italian astrophysicist who was awarded with the Nobel prize in physics back in 2002 for his important contributions to astrophysics. Since he was an astrophysicist ...
2
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1answer
91 views

Why are the first three multiplicative SI prefixes lowercase?

The BIPM specifies twenty prefixes for the International System of Units (SI). All ten of the fractional prefixes are lowercase. However, only seven of the multiplicative prefixes are uppercase, the ...
5
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1answer
99 views

When did the disciplinary distinction between art, science, and technology occur?

Often people talk of Leonardo da Vinci as an example of multi-disciplinary or inter-disciplinary successful approach towards the three fields - art, science and technology. This seems an uninformed ...
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2answers
202 views

Why are there so few Iberian mathematicians in history?

I have been analysing the rise and fall of the various centres of mathematical excellence, and following how, for example, Ancient Greece gave way to the Arab and Persian world, which inherited from ...
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0answers
83 views

How did Ruffini manage to extend the methods of Lagrange in order to “prove” the insolvability of the general quintic equation?

Since Lagrange published his Reflections papers during the early 1770s — around 30 years before Ruffini took up and extended the subject — I was wondering if there were any results that were ...
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1answer
87 views

Did Galileo use an erroneous geometrical result in 'Two New Sciences'?

In Thm. 4, Prop. 4 of Galileo's 'Two New Sciences' (pg. 187, Crew Translation), Galileo says the following: "From a single point $B$ draw the planes $BA$ and $BC$, having the same length but ...
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2answers
129 views

Inscribing equilateral triangle in square — mistake in historical work by Abu'l-Wafa Al-Buzjani?

(I asked this question in the general Mathematics forum, but I have been advised to post it here instead -- or as well.) In David Wells's "Curious and Interesting Puzzles", Penguin, 1992, ...
4
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1answer
133 views

Has any large group of people used a base other than 10, 20 and 60 for ordinary purposes?

Wikipedia's list of numeral systems lists only $10,20,60$ as having been used in history. There are about twenty-five sets of symbols there used by different groups of people, but only three different ...
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0answers
95 views

The Roman numeral system continues to lack a zero digit today. Would zero ever get its own Roman numeral digit in the future? [duplicate]

This question is a follow-up to: Why didn't the number zero (0) have a Roman numeral of its own? The number zero did not have an official Roman numeral symbol in the first place, and it still ...
2
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1answer
59 views

Did Kolmogorov complexity influence the development of communication complexity?

I was reading a wikipedia article about communication complexity and it seems to me that it bears some resemblance to Kolmogorov complexity. Was the founder of communication complexity influenced by ...
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1answer
81 views

What was considered Evolutionary Science or Biology proper in 1880-1890 in the US?

I have a question that is more related to the history of evolutionary biology rather than the science itself, namely I am interested in knowing what might have been considered the 'orthodoxy' of the ...
2
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1answer
104 views

What astronomy efforts required multiplication of large numbers around 1600?

I'm reading an article about the history of logarithms and it says: One problem that was plaguing people at the time, especially astronomers, was arithmetic. Astronomical calculations required the ...
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3answers
103 views

How large were the differences in the orbit of Uranus which led to the calculation of the existence of Neptune?

After Uranus was discovered and its orbit calculated, its future orbit was calculated, and its future positions as seen from Earth were calculated. And observers of Uranus began to notice that Uranus ...
3
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1answer
168 views

Why are complex numbers called 'complex'?

I'm a high school teacher, and I was just wondering why complex numbers are called 'complex'. I have read that Gauss coined the term. But I couldn't find any reference where it was explained. I also ...
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0answers
49 views

Did Rydberg ever learn of Bohr's quantum-mechanical explanation of his formula?

The Rydberg formula on the wavelengths of a spectral line in chemical elements was first stated empirically in 1888 by Johannes Rydberg. A theoretical explanation of the formula wouldn't arive until ...
4
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1answer
182 views

Why was the original typesetting of Number Fields by Marcus so horrible?

Does anyone here know what technology or instrument was used to typeset the first edition of the well-received textbook Number Fields by Daniel A. Marcus? I ask because the original edition looked ...
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1answer
69 views

When and where was Legendre's Conjecture first published?

When and where did Legendre first publish or write about his conjecture that there is a prime between consecutive square numbers? $$n^2 < p < (n+1)^2$$ I have looked through edition 1 and 2 of ...
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0answers
86 views

What did scientific research look like during the colonial era of British America?

Since Europe has had numerous people in various fields make several contributions over the centuries, was the same nature of study and academia reflected in the colonies of the western hemisphere? ...
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2answers
194 views

Nobel Prize for Applied Mathematics

There is no Nobel Prize for mathematics. However, have there been any Nobel Prizes for the use of applied mathematics to model the real world?
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1answer
139 views

Could a “field” have non-commutative multiplication originally?

Today, when the term "field" is defined in algebra, it is almost always stipulated that all fields are commutative. However, the author of these lectures says that this has not always been the case: ...
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2answers
235 views

Who first identified $\frac{n}{\ln(n)}$ as an approximation of a prime counting function?

Gauss, in his 1849 letter to Encke, mentions that he noticed the primes have a density approx $\frac{1}{\ln(n)}$. In that letter, he also mentions an integral function for approximating the prime ...
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1answer
76 views

What is the history of these prime counting function approximations?

I am reading several sources and there seems to be a lack of clarity, and some contradiction, about the origins of the most recognised prime counting function approximations: $\pi(n) \sim \frac{n}{\...
2
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1answer
41 views

Who was Hans Bauer who worked on the Perron integral?

I'm referring to the Hans Bauer who is the author of this article from 1915 (H. Bauer, "Der Perronsche Integralbegriff und seine Beziehung auf Lebesguesschen" Monatsh. Math. Phys. , 26 (1915) pp. 153–...
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1answer
183 views

What is the source of Einstein's quote “spooky action at a distance”? [duplicate]

Einstein's attribution of 'spooky action at a distance' to the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics is obviously in wide use as a quote. However, I've been googling the issue for a while and ...
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3answers
246 views

What problem was solved by introducing the dimension of a vector space?

In linear algebra, we care a lot about dimensions. I get why it’s useful but not why it’s such a big deal. So I wondered what problem was solved historically by introducing a rigorous definition of ...
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69 views

How was mathematics used in World War II to “act on the right amount of intelligence”?

In the movie "The Imitation Game", Alan Turing along with his team crack the German encryption machine Enigma but advises his superiors to not act on all decrypted intelligence, as that might lead to ...
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1answer
138 views

Why didn't French people take the decimal positional system? [closed]

I heard that mathematics in France is very hard because it didn't follow the decimal positional system (promoted by Leonardo Fibonacci in Europe), and I searched and found from Wikipedia that: ...
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0answers
55 views

How and when Einstein started to build Special Theory of Relativity? [duplicate]

I somewhere read that Einstein wanted to do some modifications in Lorentz Transform. How he started to build a theory and what challenges were in front of him?
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65 views

What was Legendre's opinion of Lagrange?

Are there any references to Lagrange's character or abilities in Legendre's work or letters?
5
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1answer
164 views

How did the principle of explosion come up and was developed historically? [closed]

I am looking for some background information on the principle of explosion. When was it first formulated, how was it justified, and how did it affect interpretation and development of logic? Please ...
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0answers
84 views

Why are faithful actions called faithful and who first called them faithful?

This is a cross post from MSE I want to know why are faithful actions called faithful and who first called them faithful? Definition: An action $G$ on $X$ is faithful when ${g_1 \neq g_2 \Rightarrow ...
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1answer
46 views

What is the history of electricity [closed]

Could someone please explain how the concept of electricity was originally conceived and how it became connected with time? Also how did people come about the relationship between time and electricity?...
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1answer
191 views

What was Gauss' opinion of Lagrange,Laplace and Euler?

Do we have anything of what Gauss thought of these people from his works or anecdotes ?
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1answer
67 views

How did the initial scientists conclude the new moon phase is not an eclipse?

My apologies if this is too naive a question. I keep wondering what steered people away from assuming the new moon to be an eclipse and hence go on to figure the angular difference in the orbital ...
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3answers
140 views

Why were early electronic computers mutually incompatible?

At the beginning of the electronic computing era in the 1950s, computers were mutually incompatible both in terms of hardware and software. It was impossible to use peripherals (e.g. punched card or ...
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1answer
68 views

How did Jenner and his contemporaries understand vaccination before germ theory of disease?

Edward Jenner was a British doctor in the 18th century who in 1798 developed "vaccination," that is exposing humans to cow pox in order to prevent them from acquiring small pox. Vaccination was ...
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84 views

Is there any historical evidence of this quote E.T. Bell attributed to C.G.J. Jacobi?

I read Men of Mathematics by E.T. Bell long ago, and this quote he attributed to Jacobi stuck with me: Certainly I have sometimes endangered my health from overwork, but what of it? Only cabbages ...
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105 views

Who is this Mathematician from 17th century or earlier?. Possibly the 18th century, but before calculus had spread?

I'm looking for a mathematician from this time period, 17th century or earlier, its probably at a period where trigonometry was the most advanced math that existed. I'm not sure of the exact quote ...
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1answer
307 views

Did Ptolemy and other Greek scientists actually measure the distance to the Sun?

According to Subhash C. Kak: Early Theories on the Distance to the Sun: “Pancavimsa Brahmana states that the heavens are 1000 earth diameters, de, away from the earth. The sun was also taken to be ...
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1answer
153 views

When is the first use of Newton's method for root finding?

I saw this from Wikipedia. The name "Newton's method" is derived from Isaac Newton's description of a special case of the method in De analysi per aequationes numero terminorum infinitas (written in ...
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1answer
57 views

When was the Laguerre's method first used to approximate roots?

Is there a specific date when Laguerre published his root finding method? I found his 1880 note Résolution des équations numériques, but I am not sure if this is the source because I can not read ...