Questions tagged [newton]

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2answers
100 views

Why do we use Leibniz's “version” of calculus instead of Newton's?

I understand that they invented calculus independently at roughly the same time, but why do we use Leibniz's terminology/notation rather than Newton's? For example, why don't we use "fluxion"...
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81 views

Newton as the first one to establish numerical analysis as a new field of study

I was reading about the history of Newton's Method. Newton used a cubic equation, $x^3 - 2x - 5 = 0$, to show the efficacy of his method around 1670. I was wondering that why Newton would choose this ...
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1answer
179 views

What mathematics did Isaac Newton learn at school?

Since Sir Issac Newton invented a lot of modern mathematics, what mathematics did he already know? Since he was standing on the shoulders of giants which giants was he speaking of? I presume he knew ...
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Where can I find Lagrange’s equilateral triangular solution for arbitrary masses?

This answer to What kind of triangle is formed by three unequal masses in a circular restricted three body orbit? explains that In the Newtonian limit, an equilateral 3-body solution exists for any ...
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How did Newton prove his third law of motion?

I guess it is an experimental law, so what was the experiment?
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What was Sir Issac Newton's thoughts on the origin of the Universe?

Newton founded the Law of Gravitation based on the observations of Kepler and Galilei. He later invented the mathematical framework which eventually helped him formulate his theory of gravitation. ...
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3answers
113 views

What made Newton realize that the law of gravitation was 'universal'? [duplicate]

Newton's law of gravitation operative near the earth is the same law causes the earth and the other planets to go around the sun and other heavenly phenomena. Was it a giant leap of faith by Newton or ...
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1answer
124 views

The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy

Please, advise a good review of Isaac Newton's work "The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy" with a detailed analysis of his mathematical ideas. Smth about 20-25 pages. Thank you in ...
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Did Newton invent convex hulls?

The convex hull of a set of points appears recognizably in a 1676 letter from Newton to Henry Oldenburg describing Newton polygons. Is there an earlier precedent for convex hulls or is this their ...
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1answer
61 views

Glass ball drop experiment

Several years ago, I remember reading about an experiment, and I thought it was in Newton's Principia, so the experiment was conducted in that time frame. The experiment involved timing the fall of a ...
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1answer
73 views

Is there a record of how Newton built his telescope?

Did Newton write down his process of building a reflector telescope? Even with modern knowledge and technology, building one is no easy task so I'm curious of exactly what Newton did.
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Are these Newton's quotes apocryphal?

I have stumbled upon the following alleged Newton's quotes, but I could not find them in any of their works. No great discovery was ever made without a bold guess. No sciences are better attested ...
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1answer
212 views

What problem led to the discovery of Calculus?

As far as I remember, Calculus was invented/discovered/founded by Newton. What was he trying to achieve that made him find the limit of differences approaching zero? How far did he get into Calculus? ...
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What if Newton's bucket had been a sphere?

My question is about Newton's bucket experiment. If a sphere filled (say) one-third with water is rotated very very fast, will the water eventually spread out across and coat the entire interior ...
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1answer
71 views

Did Newton already have F= ma (or equivalent) before finding his gravity equations?

Newton's gravity equations are in an F = ma configuration. Multiply the acceleration formula by m, you get the force formula. So did he have F = ma (or some equivalent - I think the concept of ...
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2answers
170 views

How did Newton measure forces in his experiments to establish the laws of motion?

I wanted to know about the experiments that Newton performed which led to the formulation of laws of motion. In particular I am interested in the following: How did he measure the forces in order to ...
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3k views

What does it mean by “d-ism of Leibniz” and “dotage of Newton” in simple English?

I am reading this article by Donald E. Knuth and get stuck by this sentence: Our mathematical language continues to improve, just as “the d-ism of Leibniz overtook the dotage of Newton” in past ...
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1answer
103 views

What was Isaac Newton's contribution to optics?

What was Isaac Newton's contribution to optics? I know that he believed in the corpuscular theory of light. Did he know about the laws of reflection ad refraction?
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1answer
301 views

Refraction in Newton's Corpuscular Theory of Light [duplicate]

Newton's theory of light stated that a light travelled in a straight line as small particles. When these particles travelled in a medium, they experienced an attractive force with the particles of the ...
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1answer
177 views

Why is there little scholarship devoted to Book II of Newton's Principia?

Books I and III seem to receive the bulk of attention by Newton scholars, and historians more generally. However, I'm sure an in-depth study of Book II would shed light on Newton as a thinker -- for ...
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1answer
142 views

Is Newton going to be the new Aristotle? [closed]

As general relativity and quantum mechanics become more accessible, is Newton going to become the new Aristotle, as the example of being wrong and misleading humanity for centuries? (as opposed to the ...
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1answer
175 views

How - Historically- René Descartes works affect the invention of calculus?

When "Cartesian coordinate system" been discovered By René Descartes, Algebra and Geometry become connected and vice versa , but how that exactly affect Newton and Gottfried Leibniz to invent what we ...
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1answer
122 views

How close was Hooke to developing a comprehensive system of gravity?

Was Hooke close to developing a physical system of gravity on the same level as Newton. looking at Luka Trkanjec's post on Quora, he insists that Newton was quite overrated in this regard, and that ...
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1answer
138 views

What was Newton's view of theory of matter?

Did Newton believe in infinitely small particle theory of matter? Because when he talks about axis of rotation, which is locus of the centers of the circles of the rotating body and particle on the ...
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2answers
242 views

Was Newton's successful calculation of precession of equinoxes a fluke?

I have looked at several sources, and Newton was right about the fact that the Earth is not a perfect sphere, but an ellipsoid caused the precession of equinoxes, as the Moon's gravitational ...
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1answer
278 views

Is there anything written by Newton's roommate Wilkins about him?

I've read that John Wilkins was Newton's room-mate and they lived together for 20 years. Is there anything about Newton written by Wilkins? By the way, there is nothing easily found on google.
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Was English mathematics behind Europe by many years because of Newton's notation?

Below are several quotes suggesting that Newton's notation had the effect of retarding English mathematics by 50 years, 100 years, or even centuries. Here is my simplistic two-sentence historical ...
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0answers
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What were the first practical applications of Newton's mechanics on engine design?

I'm interested in when and how Isaac Newton's mechanics first came to be applied practically in engine design. Did for example Thomas Newcomen take advantage on Newtons discoveries when he invented ...
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1answer
144 views

Was Newton's method of finding derivatives of his fluents based on applying the chain rule?

Can Newton’s process for finding the derivative of y as a function of x resulting in $\frac{dy}{dx}$ be thought of as an application of the chain rule? My thinking is: If y is a (continuous?) ...
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1answer
267 views

Whose value of the distance to the Moon did Newton use?

I heard that Newton used the Moon acceleration to come up with his universal law of gravity, but in order to calculate its acceleration you need the distance to the Moon. Whose measurement of this ...
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1answer
345 views

How did Newton write his equations?

Once, after a lecture, my professor of differential equations said, that Newton did not use derivatives in his work as we do today. He told us that Newton rather used some series expansions for his ...
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1answer
794 views

Difficulty in Understanding Newton's Principia

I see in many essays about Newton's Principia how it was very difficult to read and follow, so I was wondering if any of you know of any quotes from mathematicians of the time to that effect.
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679 views

How did Newton & Raphson's version of the N-R method differ?

To quote Wikipedia, Raphson's most notable work... contains a method, now known as the Newton–Raphson method... Newton had developed a very similar formula in his Method of Fluxions, written in ...
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Allegations of Newton's untruthfulness

In 1696 Johann Bernoulli posed aproblem to Europe's mathematicians to find the path of shortest time for a mass to descend from a point A to a point B. Apart from Bernoulli only a hand full of other ...
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261 views

How did heliocentrism survive after Galileo's sentencing?

Did the church continue to prosecute scientists for heliocentrism? If not, why not? What changed? Why didn't the church go after Isaac Newton?
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Absolute space and time before Newton

Why is so much emphasis put on the concepts of absolute space and time as the grand foundations of Newtonian mechanics, and not as foundations also of previous theories, as for example Kepler's laws ...
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3answers
424 views

Best books/papers on Newton and his mathematical physics

In your opinion, what are some of the best books/papers on Newton and his work that accurately cover the connections between his geometric proofs in the Principia and his development of the calculus ...
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218 views

Which problems led Newton to three laws of motion?

How did Newton come up with the three laws of motion? Are these laws are true of newton, or they are of Galileo.
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1answer
2k views

how did people build temples and buildings in the ancient times without knowing newton's law?

If nowaday an engineer needs to know high level of mathematics and physics to complete the constructions of bridges buildings and so on what happened in ancient rome, greek middle ages ? they had no ...
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1answer
343 views

Did Isaac Newton make astronomical observations?

What role did astronomy play for Isaac Newton? He was a good friend with Edmond Halley the astronomer. Kepler's laws were obviously the foundation for his physics. And he revolutionized optics too, ...
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1answer
550 views

Newton , Binomial Series and Power Series , and James Gregory

After 2 month long search on the net, I was lucky enough to find a pdf on how Newton found the series for sine. It was a beautiful derivation mostly geometrical. But he used the Binomial Series. Now ...
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1answer
92 views

Do we have any idea on how Newton developed his method of fluxions? [duplicate]

Do we know if he knew of the previous works done on this subject? Do we have any idea of his thought process? Do we even know anything about this?
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How did Newton and Kepler (actually) do it?

Today if I want to calculate an elliptical orbit of some object due to the gravity of another, I use Runge-Kutta integration, and I can see the individual steps I use shown in that article. Back "in ...
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2answers
97 views

Biographical articles on Newton and Galileo by physicist or historian

I am going to give a lecture to school children on the lives of Newton, Galileo and Einstein. I have enough literature on Einstein but not enough on the lives of Galileo and Newton. So I am looking ...
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Why is calculus missing from Newton's Principia?

I'm not suggesting that Newton did not discover calculus - the question is written this way to express my surprise that the Principia does not use the methods of calculus (or 'fluxions'). He instead ...
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1answer
2k views

What cipher(s) did Isaac Newton use?

A number of sources including this one assert that Isaac Newton used encrypted messages to communicate some of his scientific discoveries, and as a way of establishing priority. What cipher(s) did he ...
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What is the difference between Calculus of Newton and that of Leibniz?

Are there any differences between the study of Calculus done by Newton as compared to that done by Leibniz? If yes, please mention point by point.