Questions tagged [philosophy-of-science]

For questions about the branch of philosophy studying science, scientists, the scientific method and related topics.

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Does the word 'science' mean what's been found so far, or the way that human discovers unknown?

I'm writing a piece of paper and trying to understand, the meaning of word 'science' in the context of history. I'm not a native English speaker and I know I could look up in the dictionary, but my ...
Heuristic's user avatar
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Did Turing ever mention Protagoras regarding the Imitation Game?

Based on the period when Turing went to school, it is fairly inconceivable he was not well familiar with Protagoras, and the statement that: "Man is the measure of all things" *I asked a question ...
DukeZhou's user avatar
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To constructivists, is "mind" more than a convenient synonym for "algorithm"?

I could give (but, not being a professional historian, nor a native Dutch speaker, only few) references and background-remarks, but I will keep this short, to make more use of what a Q&A-sites ...
Peter Heinig's user avatar
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2 answers
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Did Karl Popper argue against Bayesian inference?

I am somewhat familiar with the works of Karl Popper and his opposition to using past data to induce prospects of future events, however disclaimed as uncertain, AKA historicism. He contributed to ...
amphibient's user avatar
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3 answers
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"Tension" between Electromagnetism and Newton's laws

When talking about the inconsistencies in physics that led up to Einstein's discovery of relativity today's professors always say that Maxwell's discovery of the constant speed of light $c$ created a ...
alex's user avatar
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What's the origin of the concept of the five senses?

It is commonly said (to children) that we have five senses: taste, sight, touch, smell, and hearing. The term "sixth sense" refers to something supernatural. But we do have more senses. Balance, for ...
LocalFluff's user avatar
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1 answer
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Has mathematicians read/reacted to speculative realism, specifically to philosophy of Quentin Meillassoux? [closed]

There has been a recent uprise in philosophy (and it seems to me to be a very popular topic there), which is called Speculative Realism or Object-Oriented Ontology. One of the founding texts there is ...
gexahedron's user avatar
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Who is the philosopher Feynman cites as saying that existence of science requires the same conditions to produce the same results?

In part 6 of his lecture series "Character of Physical Law", Richard Feynman remarks: A philosopher once said, "It is necessary for the very existence of science that the same conditions always ...
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Carnap's last theory Of probability

According to Bar-Hillel, Carnap's coauthor in a 1952 report on probability, Carnap had, as of 1956 an unpublished but circulated theory distinguishing "random" refers to methods of production of ...
Gottfried William's user avatar
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How important were serendipitous scientific discoveries (objectively)?

I'm interested in examining the efficiency of the scientific process. Part of this involves examining what actually goes into making a discovery. One common objection is: Half of all important ...
reltnek's user avatar
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Were there any famous Asian philosophers who were also mathematicians?

New here, had a question: Were there any famous Asian philosophers who were also mathematicians? Happy Xmas!
user5135's user avatar
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Why is pure mathematics important? More generally, why do some scientists deal with inaplicable notions?

I am a freshman, mathematics. I have a presentation assignment for a class. I am expected to talk about the necessity of abstract sciences. The thesis I need to argue is the following: ''Some people ...
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3 answers
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What was the major influence of Francis Bacon on the development of modern science?

I am reading "Advice for young investigators" by Santiago Ramón y Cajal , in which the author suggested Francis Bacon had made no impact on the scientific development*: "It would not be wise in ...
Shing's user avatar
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2 answers
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What did it historically mean in physics for something to "exist"?

What is the history of influential definitions of objective existence --- This Is Real, It Exists --- in physics? Where did they appear in the literature and in what context were they put forward? ...
Shing's user avatar
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Was Joseph Priestley describing fundamental interactions in the 18th century?

In 1777, Joseph Priestley wrote a book called Disquisitions relating to Matter and Spirit, in which he says: It is maintained in this treatise, that neither matter nor spirit (meaning by the latter ...
Cannabijoy's user avatar
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Who was the first scientist to suggest that objects can keep moving without applied force?

In the old days Aristotels argued that object needs a force to keep going in 'space'. Some philosophers, Philoponus and Buridanus (?), later argued that there was a need for some kind of 'impetus'. ...
Marijn 's user avatar
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1 answer
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Hidden agenda of the Galileo trial?

Redondi argued that Galileo's trial on heliocentrism was merely a show trial concealing the real objection against Galileo among the catholic establishment, which was his atomism thought to be at ...
Mikhail Katz's user avatar
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Are there fields of science that became more successful after becoming less clearly understood?

In machine learning, people have been more and more letting go of the idea that they should understand how a particular algorithm works, and accepting it on the basis that it "just works". Are there ...
user56834's user avatar
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8 votes
2 answers
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Has there been debate between relationship of philosophy of mathematics and physics?

Did there exist and does there still exist a debate over which school of mathematical thought (i.e. formalism, logicism, intuitionism, etc.) had the most affinity or application for physics? In ...
user278039's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
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Was interpretivism always considered scientific by part of the people?

I always was amazed by how disciplines which can give very different grades of accuracy (exact sciences in contrast to others which fails in its predictions more times than they are successful) can ...
Pablo's user avatar
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1 answer
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What are the earliest known accounts of the demarcation problem (science versus pseudo science)?

The demarcation problem, i.e. the problem of differentiating science from pseudo science has been on my mind recently. This might be considered a philosophy topic for philoSE but since my question has ...
MM8's user avatar
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Galileo's pendulum and any references

In some texts about the simple pendulum we use to see references about some "experiments" Galileo Galilei did realize and whereby he found some important results, including that the period of the ...
Poli Tolstov's user avatar
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Cauchy's real line and math philosophy till XIX

I have to write an essay concerning philosophy of mathematics until the end of XIX century. I've heard that the reason why the Cauchy's theorem (if continuous functions $fn→f$ then $f$ is continuous ...
leg14able's user avatar
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Where did the idea of modularization come from?

I have a wild guess that science flew when we started to take the concepts, fragment it and examine it piece by piece, fragmenting it again when needed for a better understanding. It seems that this ...
Red Banana's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
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Is there an explicit description of Landis-Petrovskiĭ's mistake in their "solution" to Hilbert's 16th problem?

The second part of the Hilbert's 16th problem (determination of the upper bound on the number of limit cycles for two-dimensional polynomial vector fields of given degree), proposed in 1900, is still ...
Ali Taghavi's user avatar
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4 answers
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Who was the first to say "Shut up and calculate!"?

The best thing I could find on the internet was this apparently forgotten article from 2004: N. David Mermin, Could Feynman have said this?, Physics Today 57 (5), 2004.
user 85795's user avatar
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Have humans gotten better at the methods of science over time? [closed]

Im currently reading the book A Short History of Nearly Everything by Bill Bryson, and as I'm reading about the history of many fields of science (e.g. paleontology, geology, astronomy, etc.) it seems ...
Hunter's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
553 views

If the lens wasn't discovered/invented what current technologies wouldn't be possible [closed]

When I'm thinking of the most crucial discoverys of science than I think of the lens invented in the 16e century. By using a lens man could make microscopes and telescopes. When I think about that ...
Marijn 's user avatar
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-1 votes
1 answer
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When and who was the first mathematicians to prove rigorously that $\sqrt[3]{2}$ was impossible number? [closed]

The purpose of the question is to understand why the number $\sqrt[3]{2}$, that was proven rigorously by ancient Greek is an impossible number (even at infinity), by their three famous impossibility ...
Bassam Karzeddin's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
183 views

Different models for the development of mathematics: Latin versus butterfly

Ian Hacking's 2014 book *Why is there philosophy of mathematics at all?", see here, contains many interesting ideas. One of the ideas is the dichotomy of two distinct models for the development ...
Mikhail Katz's user avatar
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When or why & who originated this puzzle, $0.999... = 1$ [duplicate]

The problem is the infinite or endless repeated digits of $9's$ after zero digit and the decimal notation, Despite its apparent simplicity & the huge talk about it every where in mathematics or ...
Bassam Karzeddin's user avatar
6 votes
3 answers
435 views

Nowadays I see a distinct "line" dividing people working in Mathematics and the Physical Sciences. Why?

The direction in which leading research is heading in these subjects (Math, Physics) is very much different and don't seem to be in tandem. Is this something that developed in more recent times? This ...
Wave Metric's user avatar
4 votes
4 answers
2k views

How were irrational numbers accepted by mathematicians?

What was behind accepting the existence of irrational numbers historically? Especially numbers that are not constructible on the real number line, say for example $\sqrt[3]{2}$. Was it a (somewhat) ...
Bassam Karzeddin's user avatar
9 votes
1 answer
254 views

How was difference in water pressure perceived in ancient cultures or the middle ages?

I recently wondered: Even when diving to just 2-3 meters without any modern equipment one can feel the change in pressure. Do we have any evidence how this was perceived and explained back in ancient ...
Henry Dorsett's user avatar
23 votes
3 answers
6k views

Hypothesis testing: Fisher vs. Popper vs. Bayes

I try to make my question short. I am familiar with Popper’s philosophy as well as with statistical hypothesis testing after Fisher and Neyman-Pearson. I am not so familiar with the Bayesian approach ...
Stefan's user avatar
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3 votes
4 answers
475 views

In which ways has religion helped the progress of science? [closed]

I am writing a research paper on the interplay between science and religion, and need some examples of times when religion has benefited or inspired science and technology.
Marsha Jelleff's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
674 views

History of impact of non-Euclidean geometry on math, philosophy, and the public

I'm interested in the impact of the discovery of non-Euclidean geometry on math, philosophy, and the attitudes of the general public. I don't know anything about how things changed right after the ...
user4894's user avatar
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3 votes
2 answers
265 views

Historical examples of non-scientists who thought scientifically

I am working on a project in which I want to show how the thoughts of some non-scientists, poets and artists in particular, matched with science. To instill interest in science among my peers I want ...
Soham's user avatar
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6 votes
2 answers
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David Hilbert and the limits of science

David Hilbert wrote a couple of anecdotal paragraphs regarding "the limits of science." He recalled that in the early 19th Century the position of a philosopher - or philosophy in general - was that ...
Bubastis's user avatar
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2 answers
745 views

How many proven theories have been debunked?

Was watching Dark Matters: Twisted but true the other night. It was about Einstein and how he turned the knowledge of physics up side down and pretty much said that "Newton was wrong", simplified. ...
Sandokan's user avatar
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13 votes
4 answers
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Why did Newton want lines to be generated by continued motion of points rather than by apposition of parts?

The following passage has been extracted from the Newton's (John Stewart's English translated version) "Sir Issac Newton's two Treatises: Of the Quadrature of Curves, and Analysis by equations of an ...
Sensebe's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
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History of the study of indeterminism in classical mechanics

The classic Norton's dome problem, space invaders and other examples, show that Classical Mechanics, held as the paragon of determinism for ages having inspired Laplace's statements on determinism, is ...
Cicero's user avatar
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19 votes
4 answers
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Conflict between physics and philosophy

In the old days. stars of physicists like Einstein$^{[1]}$, Poincare, Heisenberg, Pauli, $^{[2]}$ Bohr and so on are quite philosophical mind, and like philosophy. $^{[3]}$ But now, it seems to me a ...
Shing's user avatar
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12 votes
3 answers
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Why and when did some areas separate themselves from philosophy and some not?

When the Greeks invented science and mathematics in around 600 BC, it was considered as a part of philosophy. Thales of Miletus was a mathematician and philosopher. Aristotle was a philosopher, ...
wythagoras's user avatar
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16 votes
2 answers
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What is the origin of polynomials and notation for them?

This may be quite a broad question, but lately I've been wondering about the history behind polynomials. Nowadays these are pretty much the simplest kind of functions to work with, but I'd like to ...
hjhjhj57's user avatar
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7 votes
3 answers
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Why did Aristotle make mistakes in his laws of motion?

I was studying Aristotle's laws of motion and comparing them to Newton's. He states that heavier bodies fall faster than lighter ones. I really can't understand how he could have committed such a ...
jack's user avatar
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31 votes
4 answers
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Is the Scientific Method uniquely Western?

I'm studying High School Science teaching in Australia. In our Science curriculum there are "cross-curriculum" priorities "Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures" and "Asia and ...
pdmclean's user avatar
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6 votes
2 answers
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How did people react to the realization that Aristotle's ideas had gone without question for way too long?

Recently read the book "Gravity" by George Gamow, in which he says: For centuries Aristotelian philosophy and scholasticism dominated human thought. Scientific questions were answered by dialectic ...
davelook's user avatar
23 votes
7 answers
10k views

In ancient times, how did people conclude that the shape of Earth is a sphere?

This is more of a philosophical question, but I want a mathematical explanation. During ancient times, it was well accepted that the surface of Earth was spherical. People first observed this when ...
Anubhav Mukherjee's user avatar
7 votes
2 answers
265 views

What are the early examples of taxonomies in the history of science?

When you think of taxonomies, the first thing that comes to mind is Linneaus. But taxonomies were and continue to be used for all kinds of classification, from biology to astronomy and even ...
Teusz's user avatar
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