Stack Exchange Network

Stack Exchange network consists of 174 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

Visit Stack Exchange

Questions tagged [statistics]

For questions about the science that deals with classification, analysis and interpretation of numerical facts and data.

0
votes
1answer
52 views

Real effects long thought to be coincidences

What examples are there of scientific effects or correlations that we now know to be real, and were known about for a long time but thought to be coincidences? To give an example of the kind of thing ...
3
votes
2answers
62 views

What is the etymology of the term “mode” in statistics?

I saw that the word "mode" means "popular" in French, and I was wondering if this might be the etymology of the "mode" of a population in stat? I was wondering if anyone had sources for early use of ...
4
votes
4answers
220 views

Why statistical moments are called moments?

According to the Jeff Miller's Earliest Known Uses of the Words of Mathematics "Moment was taken into Statistics from Mechanics by Karl Pearson when he treated the frequency-curve (or observation ...
0
votes
0answers
25 views

Statistical Power as a Microscope Metaphor

An answer on this question on the cross validated stack exchange compared statistical power to a microscope, such that "in order to see small things you need a powerful microscope" is analogous to "in ...
5
votes
1answer
89 views

Law of the Unconscious Statistician - history of the term?

The "Law of the Unconscious Statistician" states that, for a random variable $X$ with density $f_X(x)$ and a function of it $h(X)$ we have that $$E[h(X)] = \int_{-\infty}^{\infty} f_X(x)h(x) dx$$ ...
6
votes
1answer
87 views

What is Peirce doing in this pre-Chi-squared example?

In 1878, C. S. Peirce performed a calculation that (I think) would be better done using chi-squared testing — but Pearson hasn’t introduced that yet. What exactly is Peirce doing here in the last ...
5
votes
3answers
96 views

How was the idea of observation error introduced?

The first thing a contemporary student of physics learns is the measurement error. As far as I understand, the idea of imprecision was totally foreign to natural philosophers at least until the end of ...
1
vote
0answers
68 views

Historical development of role of astrology in medicine?

The OED defines "iatromathematics" as Practising medicine in conjunction with astrology. Pre-17th century, it seems most scientists (physicians included) believed in the influence of the stars on ...
1
vote
1answer
123 views

Galileo and normal distribution discovery

If differential equation theory was known and also studied by Galileo, so why he didn't manage to discover a normal distribution (its discovery had to wait for Laplace and Gauss)?
0
votes
1answer
180 views

What defines the 'name' of a score i.e. gamma, kappa etc

I was just wondering if there is a process or set of properties that exist to name a score, such as, Cohen’s Kappa, Fleiss’ Kappa, Krippendorff’s Alpha, or if it is just at the creators choice. ...
3
votes
1answer
71 views

When did error propagation become prominent in physics?

I think is well known that greek scientists and even founding fathers of modern science did not use error propagation in their calculations. Today, instead, is unacceptable to work out any prediction ...
3
votes
0answers
38 views

Raymond Cattell and History of Personality Traits Prior 1947

I find that papers reference Raymond Cattell suggesting 16 or 22, etc, traits, by factor analysis (basically regression), including all five of the modern reproducible traits (openness to experience, ...
1
vote
0answers
36 views

Origin of diagrammatics illustrating the relation between cumulants and moments?

The exponential-log transformation of exponential generating functions (see OEIS A036040 and A127671) relate the classical cumulants to their associated moments. Who were some of the first to ...
1
vote
0answers
72 views

Why do we often minimize in optimization?

Because of the following relation, \begin{equation*} \inf(S) = -\sup(-S), \end{equation*} minimization and maximization is essentially the same thing. However, take any optimization routine in R for ...
7
votes
1answer
293 views

Who developed Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and applied it to machine learning?

I searched about GMM (Gaussian mixture model), but only found that normal distribution was invented by Carl Friedrich Gauss. I'd like to know who contributed to the development of GMM itself, and to ...
3
votes
1answer
78 views

Name and history of probabilistic non-inevitability paradox?

A counterintuitive result in probability theory that may warrant the description of a veridical paradox is the fact that repeating an experiment with a nonzero chance of success infinitely often does ...
17
votes
3answers
3k views

Hypothesis testing: Fisher vs. Popper vs. Bayes

I try to make my question short. I am familiar with Popper’s philosophy as well as with statistical hypothesis testing after Fisher and Neyman-Pearson. I am not so familiar with the Bayesian approach ...
3
votes
1answer
146 views

Secular Status Difference Between Applied and Pure Mathematics

Coming from outside the field but with healthy curiosity I have been struck by what may be regarded as a discrepancy between the impact on science at large of the mathematics developed in the field of ...
3
votes
0answers
98 views

Why do we see the modern version of regression as “Fisher's regression”?

In Fisher's paper, he did not include the error term. http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Fisher/Methods/chap5.htm But Durbin & Watson suggested the error term, and also made the matrix form of the ...
3
votes
1answer
899 views

First usage of binomial distribution

As stated in the article binomial distribution by britannica.com the binomial distribution was used by Jakob Bernoulli when he said that "the probability of $k$ ... outcomes in $n$ repetitions is ...
4
votes
1answer
755 views

Where does Markov operator come from?

I found this definition of "Markov operator" in the book Chaos, Fractals, and Noise by Lasota and Mackey. Denote by $L^1(\mu)$ the space of Lebesgue integrable functions according to the measure $\mu$...
17
votes
1answer
1k views

Who introduced random variables into probability?

I used to think that the answer is Kolmogorov. So the Shafer-Vovk's review of Kolmogorov's famous 1933 axiomatization of probability surprised me a bit:"Today, what Frechet and his contemporaries knew ...
5
votes
1answer
160 views

construct for h-index and Eddington number

There is a construct very useful to measure the efficiency taking into account both quantity and quality, which states something like N is the highest number that fulfils the statement "in this set, ...
8
votes
0answers
58 views

On the history of population dynamics of territorial species

I am interested in the historical priority in population biology, essays or monographs, discussing the concept of territoriality prior to 1950. What is it? In the early 18th century discussions of ...
7
votes
0answers
161 views

Mathematical counterintelligence at Bletchley during World War 2

Popular works of fiction claim that after breaking the Enigma in Bletchley, some sophisticated mathematics or statistical techniques were used to hide this fact of breaking (not necessarily by the ...
9
votes
0answers
64 views

Why are the classic statistical approaches to NLP mostly generative models while the most recent ones are mostly discriminative?

Looking at the classic statistical approaches to natural language processing (e.g. tagging, parsing, etc.), I see that they are mostly generative models: n-gram models, Naive Bayes classifiers, hidden ...
24
votes
1answer
362 views

Was fake/rigged data common prior to the 20th century?

In one of the lab courses I took as an undergraduate, I remember that the professor noted while discussing some statistical test (almost certainly chi-squared) that one could use it to show that a lot ...