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2 votes
2 answers
76 views

Origin of the concept of "impulse"

Question: So, I recently looked back into my physics textbook and found the concept of "impulse" there. Now, upon reading the explanation in the textbook and several definitions online, I ...
2 votes
1 answer
67 views

How does the daguerrotype give directly a positive image?

I have already asked this question in the Chemistry community, but since daguerrotype is an old, obsolete technique, I hope this question can be considered as on-topic also here, to increase my ...
0 votes
1 answer
141 views

When did Claude Navier write the work "Sur Les Lois du Mouvement des Fluides"?

When did Claude Navier write the work "Sur Les Lois du Mouvement des Fluides"? I can’t find this information on the internet. "Sur Les Lois du Mouvement des Fluides" read at 1822
3 votes
1 answer
115 views

Were there any criticisms of his first FTA proof during Gauss's lifetime?

According to several papers related to Gauss' FTA proof, in the first proof he said, “It seems to be well demonstrated that an algebraic curve neither ends abruptly (as it happens in the ...
0 votes
0 answers
41 views

Is Navier-Stokes equations first time derived in work "Sur les lois des mouvements des fluides, en ayant égard à l’adhésion des molecules"?

Quote from this article, page 114 : "Navier provided this equation in a memoir that was read on 18 March 1822 at the Academy of Sciences and published in summary form in the Annales de Chimie et ...
11 votes
9 answers
6k views

Are there any well-known mathematicians who were marxists?

Inspired by this post I would like to ask whether there were any well-known (deceased) mathematicians who were marxists? In the early 1930s, Ernst Kolman approved the publication of the Russian ...
2 votes
0 answers
52 views

When was extreme longevity of some species first suspected?

Although myths of extreme age in heroes and even ordinary humans seemed to have been common, it is only fairly recently that lifespans of centuries for Greenland sharks and Bowhead whales has been ...
6 votes
8 answers
2k views

Are there any well known mathematicians who were fascists?

I only recently learned that Pascual Jordan, a well known physicist, with significant contributions to the development of early quantum mechanics was a paid member of the Nazi Party. He in fact joined ...
1 vote
1 answer
138 views

Zahler, Sussman, and Kolata Controversy of 1977

In Steven Strogatz's "Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos: With Applications to Physics, Biology, Chemistry, and Engineering", Storgatz mentions a "violent controversy" between Zahler, ...
67 votes
1 answer
9k views

What's the famous story about a mathematician who gave a talk without saying a word?

Years ago, I read a story about a mathematician who found a numerical counterexample to some conjecture long believed to be true. He gave a talk during which he didn't utter a single word but simply ...
5 votes
1 answer
688 views

What is the largest academic genealogy tree that we know of?

Many famous scientists are connected by their doctorate advisor-student relations. I wonder if we know which is the largest continuous chain of famous researchers. I have checked pages like ...
2 votes
0 answers
48 views

Körner-Contardi reaction: Lost to history?

When we talk about synthesizing aryl halides, the more famous reaction is Friedel-Crafts halogenation which is still used commercially to produce chlorobenzene. If we consider synthesis through ...
0 votes
0 answers
205 views

What year was Navier-Stokes equations introduced?

In this video he is explaining what are Navier-Stokes equations. As I find these equations are evolution of Euler equations. In this article they choose 1822. Do yo agree with this? Who and when first ...
6 votes
1 answer
2k views

How does the science community decide which scientist to credit for a particular discovery?

In the science community there are lots of cases where two or more scientists work on the same ideas or theories. How is it decided which scientist to give credit for a particular discovery? What are ...
1 vote
2 answers
309 views

Did Gauss anticipate Kirchhoff's diffraction formulation in 1836?

Clemens Schaefer says, in his treatise "Über Gauss' physikalische Arbeiten", that for a very short time in the years 1835/1836 Gauss showed interest in the new diffraction experiments of ...
10 votes
1 answer
251 views

Did Ulam discover category theory?

(The following query by Noam Zeilberger has recently appeared on the Categories mailing list; I am taking the liberty of asking it here.) In Ulam's autobiography Adventures of a Mathematician, there ...
6 votes
4 answers
386 views

Where and how did scientists of the 18th and 19th century learn foreign languages?

I'm always amazed by the the apparent amount of foreign languages that scientists in the 18th and 19th centuries seem to have possessed. With the end of Latin as the main scholarly language, ...
5 votes
2 answers
212 views

What was the basis for Crick's proposal of the central dogma of molecular biology?

In 1957 Crick propounded the central dogma of molecular biology: The Central Dogma. This states that once "information" has passed into protein it cannot get out again. In more detail, the ...
7 votes
1 answer
491 views

Who first suggested that "junk" DNA may perform epigenetic functions?

In the last few years there have been several reports that DNA that does not code for any protein ("junk" DNA) may have epigenetic aspects: namely, switching on and off other genes. In the ...
3 votes
1 answer
754 views

Why is the Mean Value Theorem (of holomorphic functions) called "Gauss's"?

A handy special case of the Cauchy Integral Formula says that, if a complex function $f$ is analytic on and inside a circle of radius $r$ around $a$, $$f(a) = \frac{1}{2\pi}\int_0^{2\pi} f(a +re^{it}) ...
11 votes
1 answer
5k views

How did Eratosthenes knew the exact time of the day?

Eratosthenes measured the radius of the Earth with an incredibly accuracy. To do it, you need to measure the length of the shadows from 2 different cities at the same time of the day. Then knowing ...
0 votes
0 answers
83 views

Did Gauss ever explicitly claim ordinary least squares as his own?

I have seen Gauss claim in certain literature that he had been using the principle of least squares even before Legendre defined it. (It was probably a document calculating the orbit of the asteroid ...
6 votes
10 answers
2k views

Who are the mathematicians interested in the history of mathematics?

I am looking at all mathematicians. Who are the mathematicians who are interested in the history of mathematics? I found that among modern mathematicians whose information is relatively easy to ...
1 vote
0 answers
98 views

History of representation theory

I read the book 'The Genesis of the Abstract Group Concept'. If you see page 91 of this book, I wish to comment on the last two sections of Cauchy's paper. Both sections deal with a kind of ...
8 votes
1 answer
358 views

Can anyone find Newton's calculation error in Principia, Book III, Proposition XIX?

Musing about the historical evolution of the notation for the gravitational constant ($f$, $G$, $\kappa$, $\kappa^2$), I found myself digging for the first time in my life into Newton's Principia, ...
1 vote
1 answer
54 views

Why coin "Apophänie" for delusional revelations of a schizophrenic?

In 1958, Klaus Conrad published a monograph entitled Die beginnende Schizophrenie. Versuch einer Gestaltanalyse des Wahns, in which he described in groundbreaking detail the prodromal mood and ...
6 votes
3 answers
393 views

Evaluating the Mehrtens hypothesis concerning Felix Klein

Historian H. Mehrtens hypothesized an opposition between moderns and countermoderns in early 20th century mathematics, with the former led by Hilbert and the latter by Klein. Hilbert's lecture at the ...
2 votes
1 answer
263 views

When was the ‘mathematics department’ first established in universities?

It seems that 'mathematics' was within the category of 'philosophy', at least in universities, until 1799, when Gauss received a doctorate in 'philosophy' rather than a doctorate in 'mathematics'. So, ...
2 votes
0 answers
69 views

What was the kidney disease situation before dialysis machines?

I read that Willem Kolff set out to build an artificial kidney (accomplished in 1943) because he had a 22 year-old patient die of kidney failure right in front of him and he had no way to help him. ...
2 votes
1 answer
429 views

Who discovered Maxwell-Faraday equation, $\nabla\times E=-\frac{\partial B}{\partial t}$? Was it Maxwell or Neumann?

I have been trying to find out who discovered Maxwell-Faraday equation, $\nabla\times E=-\frac{\partial B}{\partial t}$. Was it Maxwell himself, or was it Franz Ernst Neumann who derived it? The ...
0 votes
0 answers
20 views

Who first came up with the idea of ​a scheme in algebraic geometry? [duplicate]

At first, I thought that Alexander Grothendieck was the first to come up with the idea of ​​the scheme and established it, but when I found out that the idea of ​​the scheme existed even before ...
2 votes
1 answer
182 views

What does Dijkstra mean with his title "on the cruelty of really teaching computing science"?

That's EWD 1036. What does he mean by "really teaching"? And also, what is the cruelty implied in "really teaching" it? The title is a bit obscure after you read his paper. Such ...
10 votes
2 answers
219 views

Who first considered signed area?

Who first suggested that the area enclosed by a closed path and that enclosed by that path traversed in reverse could be regarded as equal in magnitude but opposite in sign? Cauchy must have noticed ...
95 votes
14 answers
18k views

What famous theorems or results were proven by female mathematicians?

We know that there were/are many famous female mathematicians who influenced mathematics as we know it today, but their numbers are few compared to male mathematicians. While we have numerous famous ...
4 votes
1 answer
865 views

Was it after Riemann's death that Weierstrass gave a counterexample to Riemann's mapping theorem?

Since the period when Weierstrass pointed out the flaw in the proof of Riemann's mapping theorem is reported differently in different documents, I have doubts about the exact timing. When exactly did ...
2 votes
1 answer
64 views

Did Riemann take for granted the existence of a function that achieves the minimum in the ‘Dirichlet principle’?

Or did Riemann take for granted the existence of a function that achieves the minimum value under the special assumption that used the Dirichlet principle (the assumption of partial smoothness as ...
3 votes
1 answer
101 views

When was the pseudo-vector first defined?

In an answer to a question asked here on the history of vector notation, it's mentioned in an answer that W. Voigt in 1896 distinguished between "polar vectors" and axial vectors". ...
7 votes
2 answers
1k views

Who is Rudolf Bach?

I've googled but have not found anything about mathematician Rudolf Bach. In Riemannian or semi-Riemannian geometry such as general relativity, Conformal geometry, Wave propagation theory such as ...
7 votes
6 answers
1k views

Whatever happened to quaternions?

Quaternions were made up by Hamilton. They are an extension of complex numbers. It is said that he first introduced "3d tertions". He was thinking what the relation between $\bf i$ and $\bf ...
1 vote
1 answer
292 views

From which university did Riemann acquired Ph.D?

Did Riemann get a Ph.D from the University of Berlin? Or did Riemann get his Ph.D from the University of Göttingen? I thought he had acquired it from the University of Berlin, but when I found out ...
0 votes
2 answers
92 views

Did Riemann leave any books?

As far as I know, Riemann never left any books, but after accidentally discovering 'on the hypotheses which lie at the bases of geometry' registered as Riemann's book on Google, I began to wonder. Did ...
1 vote
0 answers
118 views

Why isn't Boethius's Thesis more commonly accepted in mathematics and logic?

Why isn't Boethius's Thesis, that the negation of an implication is another implication where the consequent is negated, a commonly accepted axiom in mathematics and logic? It is an axiom of connexive ...
0 votes
0 answers
42 views

Medieval Logical Interpretations of the Word "All"

Paraphrasing the Philosopher (Aristotle): Forms of speech are either simple or composite. If expressions are simple, then they are neither true nor false. With this said, did some Medieval logicians ...
0 votes
0 answers
95 views

How many times did Isaac Newton repeat things if he didn't understand something?

When I was taking a class in university, I heard the professor say that if there was a part of Isaac Newton that he didn't understand, he had to read it over and over again hundreds of times. Is this ...
1 vote
2 answers
218 views

Bieberbach’s 1934 lecture on “German mathematics”

Does anyone know of an English translation of Ludwig Bieberbach’s infamous 1934 Berlin lecture, delivered at the annual conference of the Deutscher Verein zur Förderung des mathematischen und ...
0 votes
0 answers
38 views

Was Riemann's research style closer to the 'collaborative' style of Grothendieck and von Neumann?

Or was he more of an 'independent' style like his teacher Gauss? If you can give an objectively correct answer to this, what is the basis for it?
1 vote
0 answers
37 views

Who introduced the fermionic creation and annihilation operators?

It is strange that this is never mentioned when textbooks introduce the 2nd quantization formalism.
4 votes
1 answer
144 views

Is it true that Aryabhata explicitly understood or stated the irrationality of $\pi$?

It is well known that Aryabhata, the prominent Indian mathematician and astronomer of the 5th century CE, made significant contributions to mathematics, including approximations of $\pi$ (pi). In his ...
12 votes
2 answers
1k views

Did Turing invent the imitation game? Did he name it?

In his 1950 paper in Mind titled "Computer Machinery and Intelligence" which introduces the test that now bears his name, Alan Turing starts by describing a game which he calls the "Imitation Game", ...
0 votes
0 answers
91 views

Does Navier-Stokes formulation change over timeline?

In this article write: "the equation was rediscovered or re-derived at least four times, by Cauchy in 1823, by Poisson in 1829, by Saint-Venant in 1837, and by Stokes in 1845" "To ...

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