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I want to know the tricks to search for and find old academic journals for free

In the research of scientific and mathematical history, efficient skills in searching for and accessing old academic journals (preferably for free) are essential. However, even when using platforms ...
enjin2000's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
64 views

Is the first paper attempting to apply Hilbert space theory to quantum mechanics in 1926 Germany available for free online?

I would like to view the quantum mechanics paper "Über die Jacobischen Transformationen der Quantenmechanik," published in Germany in 1926 by Fritz Wolfgang London. The reference is Z. Phys. ...
enjin2000's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
113 views

Was such advanced content on set theory taught in American elementary schools back in 1965?

The image attached is a comic strip from "Peanuts," dating back to 1965. It portrays Sally, the younger sister of Charlie Brown, throwing a tantrum over learning set theory in elementary ...
enjin2000's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
58 views

Is Gauss’ nickname really ‘The Prince of Mathematics’?

As far as I know, Gauss's nickname comes from the phrase GEORGIVS V REX HANNOVERAE MATHEMATICORVM PRINCIPI, which was the phrase on the medal the King of Hanover awarded Gauss after his death. I ...
sadsalk's user avatar
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0 answers
49 views

During Gauss's lifetime, was there a 'living' mathematician more prestigious than Gauss? [closed]

I became curious about Cauchy after reading that he was more prestigious than Gauss during his lifetime. During Gauss's lifetime, was there a 'living' mathematician more prestigious than Gauss?
Mathhhhhhhhhh's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
1k views

Gauss has proven FTA several times. Are any of Gauss's FTA proofs considered rigorous in modern mathematics?

Gauss has proven FTA several times. Are any of Gauss's FTA proofs considered rigorous in modern mathematics? Or is it that, despite many proofs, there is not a single one that can be considered modern ...
Guess's user avatar
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0 answers
31 views

non-integer candela measurements and candela manipulation

What was the oldest way to quantify or measure candelas or control it as as an independent variable (luminous intensity)?
Coo's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
65 views

What is the oldest way to measure the voltage?

What is the oldest way to measure the voltage? I mean the experimental way or apparatus.
Coo's user avatar
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-2 votes
0 answers
66 views

Why didn't Alexander Grothendieck win the Wolf Prize and Abel Prize? [closed]

Although Grothendieck was clearly one of the greatest mathematicians of the 20th century and one of the greatest mathematicians of all time, it is hard to understand why he did not win Wolf Prize and ...
Lie's user avatar
  • 1
0 votes
0 answers
80 views

Source of Galileo quote on curves

In George Simmons' Calculus Gems there is an interesting quote, supposedly from Galileo, pertaining to whether one can compare curved and straight lines (in length, for instance): Who is so blind as ...
kcrisman's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
172 views

Why is the Riemann conjecture called the Riemann hypothesis?

Wikipedia’s “List of conjectures” page lists 128 mathematical conjectures. All conjectures are called “conjecture” except two: Riemann hypothesis and Schinzel’s hypothesis. I think there is a ...
zeynel's user avatar
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-3 votes
0 answers
45 views

What are Newton's mathematical achievements? [closed]

Strangely enough, I don't feel like much is known about his achievements other than the creation of calculus. (Excluding, of course, his activities such as introducing mathematical systems into ...
ISAAC's user avatar
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-3 votes
0 answers
30 views

Did Lagrange ever made mathematical mistakes in the books or papers he published? [closed]

What's interesting about Lagrange to me is that all the descriptions of him by his contemporaries, and even a century later, essentially make him seem perfect. has he ever made any mathematical ...
olipo's user avatar
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-3 votes
0 answers
40 views

Did Cauchy ever made mathematical mistakes in the books or papers he published? [closed]

As far as I know, Abel pointed out that Cauchy defined Infinitesimal incorrectly. Is this true? And besides Cauchy's proofs of infinitesimal, has he ever made any mathematical mistakes in his ...
olipo's user avatar
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-2 votes
1 answer
86 views

Does Lagrange's FTA proof meet rigorous requirements even by modern standards?

I know that Gauss pointed out flaws in Euler and d'Alembert's FTA proof when he submitted the FTA proof as a doctoral thesis in 1799, but I don't think I've ever seen any mention of Lagrange, so I'm ...
Lag's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
105 views

Why did Grothendieck think that Deligne was more talented than him? [closed]

Was it just a sign of humility? Or was his idea of ​​‘talent’ a bit different from the general realm? And did Grothendieck regret that he could not solve the last part of the Weil conjecture?
olipo's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
1k views

Did Poincaré ever make mistakes in the books or papers he published? [closed]

As far as I know, he published a paper containing serious mathematical mistakes about the three-body problem, but he soon spent a lot of money to retrieve the paper and prove that it was impossible to ...
olipo's user avatar
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-2 votes
0 answers
40 views

Why did Serre assessment Weil higher than Grothendieck? [closed]

Was it because serre was not interested in Grothendieck's work? Or was it simply because serre and Grothendieck had different styles?
olipo's user avatar
  • 29
-2 votes
0 answers
52 views

Is there any other mathematician who has contributed to and influenced in mathematics of one field as much as AG? [closed]

I know that Alexander Grothendieck has made a great contribution to algebraic geometry, and that his contribution and influence are greater than those of any other mathematician of the 20th century. ...
olipo's user avatar
  • 29
1 vote
0 answers
92 views

Why Did Riemann Venture into Number Theory for the Riemann Hypothesis?

I’m exploring the history behind the Riemann Hypothesis and I found something interesting. We know that Bernhard Riemann was mainly focused on complex analysis, but he also wrote a very important ...
Metehan Turan's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
107 views

Is Gauss's 1849 proof of the fundamental theorem of algebra a rigorous proof

even by the standards of modern mathematics? Or are there some mistakes or errors?
user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
119 views

An unpublished calculation of Gauss and the icosahedral group

According to p.68 of Paul Stackel's essay "Gauss as geometer" (which deals with "complex quantities with more than two units") , Gauss calculated the coordinates of the vertices of ...
user2554's user avatar
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16 votes
1 answer
2k views

Who was Nicolò Paganini that discovered the amicable pair 1184, 1210?

Nicolò Paganini (not the violinist) was a 16 yo Italian schoolboy when he discovered that 1184 and 1210 form a pair of amicable numbers. It is in fact, the 2nd smallest such pair, and it did escape ...
Rodrigo A. Pérez's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
37 views

Where does the term "reflection" come from?

Earlier today, I was asked why a motion of the plane that fixes a line of points is called a reflection and I was stumped for an answer. The best explanation I can think of is that the image of a ...
Numeral's user avatar
  • 101
3 votes
1 answer
631 views

Where did Lagrange prove the Four Squares Theorem?

I am trying to confirm the initial publication of Lagrange's Four Squares Theorem. Most of my sources give that it was proved by him in $1770$. However, the generally very good Penguin Dictionary of ...
Prime Mover's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
95 views

Was Bell’s theorem historically seen as evidence against realism and determinism?

As Tim Maudlin points out in his paper: Early on, Bell’s result was often reported as ruling out determinism, or hidden variables. Nowadays, it is sometimes reported as ruling out, or at least ...
Cory's user avatar
  • 111
2 votes
1 answer
167 views

What is the origin (and perhaps original) of this quote by André Weil

I found this quote by André Weil in a few places online: As every mathematician knows, nothing is more fruitful than these obscure analogies, these indistinct reflections of one theory into another, ...
Lukas Heger's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
343 views

The contribution of Rosalind Franklin to the Watson–Crick structure of DNA

In 1953, in a letter to the journal Nature, Watson and Crick proposed a structure for DNA — generally referred to as “The Double Helix”. In a full article published the following year, they wrote: “...
David's user avatar
  • 321
4 votes
2 answers
154 views

How did Fourier know an infinite number of frequencies were required to solve the heat equation?

If we look at the 1D heat equation on a conducting rod with non-insulated ends, we get the standard Heat Equation from which the Fourier series formula is derived. I know that the heat equation had ...
user21035's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
282 views

Who is William Bigelow Easton?

William Bigelow Easton is the full name of the American mathematician who is the eponym of Easton's theorem, a far-reaching application of the method of forcing in set theory. Despite the many ...
Todd Trimble's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
125 views

When and how did the definition of continuity in terms of function's oscillation come into picture?

In this Wikipedia article, it is described how the oscillation of a function can be used to characterize the function having a limit. So, we say a function is continuous at a point when if its ...
Babu's user avatar
  • 473
2 votes
1 answer
129 views

Ancient Greek Definition of Area

I am looking for a source that would explain what the ancient Greeks thought the “area” of a polygon was, in a philosophical sense. It’s very easy to find sources about the history of their formulas ...
Joe's user avatar
  • 123
6 votes
1 answer
1k views

What sort of science is satirized in Hogarth's Weighing House?

William Hogarth produced the satirical etching "The Weighing House" in 1763. What is the background to this? What aspect of science was Hogarth being satirical about? What was the ...
Hugh's user avatar
  • 224
1 vote
2 answers
94 views

Who was the first to understand a derivative and integral as both giving rise to new functions?

NOTE: Even if not called "functions" surely someone understood that returning something other than a numerical value was significant? If I understand it correctly, Newton, for example, was ...
releseabe's user avatar
  • 1,173
2 votes
1 answer
105 views

I'm searching for the original paper from 1924 where Max Born first proposed the term "quantum mechanics."

I'm searching for historical documents pertaining to quantum mechanics because I aim to write a popular essay on the topic for a web magazine. Specifically, I'm seeking free access to Max Born's paper ...
enjin2000's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
28 views

What are some examples of fringe science theories from the past that are widely accepted today? [duplicate]

Throughout history, many scientific theories that were initially considered fringe or controversial have eventually become widely accepted within the scientific community. These ideas often faced ...
Jon's user avatar
  • 291
5 votes
1 answer
177 views

Why was FFT needed to detect Soviet nuclear tests?

On the Wikipedia page of Fast Fourier transform it mentions that [John] Tukey came up with the idea during a meeting of President Kennedy's Science Advisory Committee where a discussion topic ...
anonymous's user avatar
  • 153
3 votes
0 answers
108 views

The history of under-40 rule of Fields Medal: has it ever been seriously discussed, voted on to change or at least challenged in IMU/ICM?

From Wikipedia, the under-40 rule is based on Fields' desire that "while it was in recognition of work already done, it was at the same time intended to be an encouragement for further ...
No One's user avatar
  • 233
0 votes
0 answers
53 views

When were the notions of "matter" (as opposed to mass) and its conservation introduced?

[Moved here from physics.stackexchange] With the development of relativity it became clear that mass and energy are the same, and therefore that they aren't separately conserved (or balanced). It ...
pglpm's user avatar
  • 123
3 votes
3 answers
434 views

Earliest real-world uses of calculus and linear algebra

I want to illustrate in class that real-world applications of mathematics might take time to come to fruit. In this context, I want to find what the earliest real-world applications of Calculus and ...
Jaikrishnan's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
41 views

The Root of a Geometric Progression

Good people! I'm presently in the process of putting something together on Euler and Gauss and cyclotomy and modular arithmetic, and I noticed that when it comes to the terminology primitive root ...
StormyTeacup's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
43 views

How did "Gauss's law" get its name?

Did Carl Friedrich Gauss derive Gauss's law? How did the Maxwell equation we call "Gauss's law" become known as that? In class, we went over how you derive it from Coulomb's law, but I don't ...
Dominic Stewart-Guido's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
91 views

Looking for a letter written by Gauss in which he remarks that he has worked very hard on mathematics

In my memory, I once read a letter that Gauss wrote to a friend or acquaintance in which he remarks something along the following lines---if people worked on mathematics as much as I did, they would ...
user20971's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
123 views

Who first proved that empty set is subset of all sets?

Who is the mathematician who proved that empty set is subset of all sets and made it known to most mathematicians? I looked into the ripple effects in the mathematical world that would occur if the ...
user1274233's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
71 views

Where can I find Weierstrass's research notes?

I want to know the researth results of Weierstrass in 1841, where he proved some theories about Laurent series. Can you help me find it? I'd appreciate it if you can do me a favor!:)
makabaka's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
96 views

Who "made" Gauss?

I was looking at the math genealogy related to probabilities and there was pretty much a straight line going from Kolmogorov to Laplace. Then I got to Markov's sequence which gets a bit messy: Markov -...
student's user avatar
  • 21
2 votes
1 answer
86 views

Equicardinality of $\mathbb{R}$ and $\mathbb{R}^2$ via interleaving decimal expansions

As Fernando Q. Gouvêa notes in his paper, Was Cantor Surprised? (Amer. Math. Monthly 118 (March 2011), 198–209) Cantor initially tried to prove that $(0,1]$ and $(0,1] \times (0,1]$ have the same ...
Timothy Chow's user avatar
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0 votes
0 answers
57 views

When did people first thought of a purely symbolic logic?

In Euclid's Elements, the famous five planar geometry axioms are formulated in common language (ancient greek in this case) and use ambiguous terms. On the other hand, modern theories like ZFC or ...
Weier's user avatar
  • 379
1 vote
0 answers
40 views

Help With Understanding of Constants in Zeller's Congruence

If this would be better suited over on the Mathematics Exchange, please move it appropriately. I thought I would start here for the history type aspect Background I'm currently working as a Data ...
eyoung100's user avatar
  • 111
0 votes
1 answer
191 views

Origin of vacuous truth

I am curious about vacuous truth in logic. I searched Google for various resources, including here. What I could learn from the paper was that I could not know the history or background of vacuous ...
user1274233's user avatar

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