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When was extreme longevity of some species first suspected?

Although myths of extreme age in heroes and even ordinary humans seemed to have been common, it is only fairly recently that lifespans of centuries for Greenland sharks and Bowhead whales has been ...
releseabe's user avatar
  • 1,193
0 votes
0 answers
37 views

Körner-Contardi reaction: Lost to history?

When we talk about synthesizing aryl halides, the more famous reaction is Friedel-Crafts halogenation which is still used commercially to produce chlorobenzene. If we consider synthesis through ...
Nilay Ghosh's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
91 views

When did Claude Navier write the work "Sur Les Lois du Mouvement des Fluides"?

When did Claude Navier write the work "Sur Les Lois du Mouvement des Fluides"? I can’t find this information on the internet. Here is pdf of work, published 18 March 1822. Edited: It is not ...
22flower's user avatar
  • 183
0 votes
1 answer
40 views

How does the daguerrotype give directly a positive image?

I have already asked this question in the Chemistry community, but since daguerrotype is an old, obsolete technique, I hope this question can be considered as on-topic also here, to increase my ...
Alfred's user avatar
  • 182
11 votes
10 answers
6k views

Are there any well-known mathematicians who were marxists?

Inspired by this post I would like to ask whether there were any well-known (deceased) mathematicians who were marxists? In the early 1930s, Ernst Kolman approved the publication of the Russian ...
Mikhail Katz's user avatar
  • 6,161
9 votes
1 answer
240 views

Did Ulam discover category theory?

(The following query by Noam Zeilberger has recently appeared on the Categories mailing list; I am taking the liberty of asking it here.) In Ulam's autobiography Adventures of a Mathematician, there ...
Todd Trimble's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
80 views

Were there any criticisms of his first FTA proof during Gauss's lifetime?

According to several papers related to Gauss' FTA proof, in the first proof he said, “It seems to be well demonstrated that an algebraic curve neither ends abruptly (as it happens in the ...
Leonhard's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
52 views

Why coin "Apophänie" for delusional revelations of a schizophrenic?

In 1958, Klaus Conrad published a monograph entitled Die beginnende Schizophrenie. Versuch einer Gestaltanalyse des Wahns, in which he described in groundbreaking detail the prodromal mood and ...
user95921's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
754 views

Why is the Mean Value Theorem (of holomorphic functions) called "Gauss's"?

A handy special case of the Cauchy Integral Formula says that, if a complex function $f$ is analytic on and inside a circle of radius $r$ around $a$, $$f(a) = \frac{1}{2\pi}\int_0^{2\pi} f(a +re^{it}) ...
Torsten Schoeneberg's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
262 views

When was the ‘mathematics department’ first established in universities?

It seems that 'mathematics' was within the category of 'philosophy', at least in universities, until 1799, when Gauss received a doctorate in 'philosophy' rather than a doctorate in 'mathematics'. So, ...
polictics's user avatar
6 votes
10 answers
2k views

Who are the mathematicians interested in the history of mathematics?

I am looking at all mathematicians. Who are the mathematicians who are interested in the history of mathematics? I found that among modern mathematicians whose information is relatively easy to ...
user1274233's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
20 views

Who first came up with the idea of ​a scheme in algebraic geometry? [duplicate]

At first, I thought that Alexander Grothendieck was the first to come up with the idea of ​​the scheme and established it, but when I found out that the idea of ​​the scheme existed even before ...
Lie.'s user avatar
  • 21
0 votes
0 answers
82 views

Did Gauss ever explicitly claim ordinary least squares as his own?

I have seen Gauss claim in certain literature that he had been using the principle of least squares even before Legendre defined it. (It was probably a document calculating the orbit of the asteroid ...
Lie.'s user avatar
  • 21
2 votes
0 answers
68 views

What was the kidney disease situation before dialysis machines?

I read that Willem Kolff set out to build an artificial kidney (accomplished in 1943) because he had a 22 year-old patient die of kidney failure right in front of him and he had no way to help him. ...
imrobert's user avatar
  • 195
4 votes
1 answer
865 views

Was it after Riemann's death that Weierstrass gave a counterexample to Riemann's mapping theorem?

Since the period when Weierstrass pointed out the flaw in the proof of Riemann's mapping theorem is reported differently in different documents, I have doubts about the exact timing. When exactly did ...
Lie.'s user avatar
  • 41
2 votes
1 answer
64 views

Did Riemann take for granted the existence of a function that achieves the minimum in the ‘Dirichlet principle’?

Or did Riemann take for granted the existence of a function that achieves the minimum value under the special assumption that used the Dirichlet principle (the assumption of partial smoothness as ...
Lie.'s user avatar
  • 21
3 votes
1 answer
100 views

When was the pseudo-vector first defined?

In an answer to a question asked here on the history of vector notation, it's mentioned in an answer that W. Voigt in 1896 distinguished between "polar vectors" and axial vectors". ...
Larry Harson's user avatar
7 votes
2 answers
1k views

Who is Rudolf Bach?

I've googled but have not found anything about mathematician Rudolf Bach. In Riemannian or semi-Riemannian geometry such as general relativity, Conformal geometry, Wave propagation theory such as ...
Matha Mota's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
292 views

From which university did Riemann acquired Ph.D?

Did Riemann get a Ph.D from the University of Berlin? Or did Riemann get his Ph.D from the University of Göttingen? I thought he had acquired it from the University of Berlin, but when I found out ...
Lie.'s user avatar
  • 13
1 vote
0 answers
117 views

Why isn't Boethius's Thesis more commonly accepted in mathematics and logic?

Why isn't Boethius's Thesis, that the negation of an implication is another implication where the consequent is negated, a commonly accepted axiom in mathematics and logic? It is an axiom of connexive ...
AUTIST INC's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
41 views

Medieval Logical Interpretations of the Word "All"

Paraphrasing the Philosopher (Aristotle): Forms of speech are either simple or composite. If expressions are simple, then they are neither true nor false. With this said, did some Medieval logicians ...
AUTIST INC's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
91 views

Did Riemann leave any books?

As far as I know, Riemann never left any books, but after accidentally discovering 'on the hypotheses which lie at the bases of geometry' registered as Riemann's book on Google, I began to wonder. Did ...
Lie.'s user avatar
  • 11
0 votes
0 answers
38 views

Was Riemann's research style closer to the 'collaborative' style of Grothendieck and von Neumann?

Or was he more of an 'independent' style like his teacher Gauss? If you can give an objectively correct answer to this, what is the basis for it?
Lie.'s user avatar
  • 1
0 votes
0 answers
95 views

How many times did Isaac Newton repeat things if he didn't understand something?

When I was taking a class in university, I heard the professor say that if there was a part of Isaac Newton that he didn't understand, he had to read it over and over again hundreds of times. Is this ...
user1274233's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
37 views

Who introduced the fermionic creation and annihilation operators?

It is strange that this is never mentioned when textbooks introduce the 2nd quantization formalism.
poisson's user avatar
  • 417
4 votes
1 answer
144 views

Is it true that Aryabhata explicitly understood or stated the irrationality of $\pi$?

It is well known that Aryabhata, the prominent Indian mathematician and astronomer of the 5th century CE, made significant contributions to mathematics, including approximations of $\pi$ (pi). In his ...
Pustam Raut's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
116 views

How did Rutherford estimate the number of Au atoms in the foil in his experiment?

In the Rutherford experiment (where he found the diameter of the nucleus of an Au atom by estimating the probability of an $\alpha$-particle to bounce back on a gold foil), how did Rutherford estimate ...
niobium's user avatar
  • 123
0 votes
0 answers
54 views

Who first introduced semantic and syntactic consequence

The relations $A \vdash B$, read "$A$ proves $B$'', and $A\vDash B$, read if $A$ is true then $B$ is true, are referred to as syntactic and semantic consequence, respectively. In the history of ...
user21177's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
91 views

Does Navier-Stokes formulation change over timeline?

In this article write: "the equation was rediscovered or re-derived at least four times, by Cauchy in 1823, by Poisson in 1829, by Saint-Venant in 1837, and by Stokes in 1845" "To ...
22flower's user avatar
  • 183
6 votes
1 answer
2k views

How does the science community decide which scientist to credit for a particular discovery?

In the science community there are lots of cases where two or more scientists work on the same ideas or theories. How is it decided which scientist to give credit for a particular discovery? What are ...
22flower's user avatar
  • 183
1 vote
0 answers
96 views

History of representation theory

I read the book 'The Genesis of the Abstract Group Concept'. If you see page 91 of this book, I wish to comment on the last two sections of Cauchy's paper. Both sections deal with a kind of ...
user1274233's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
141 views

Why Isaac Newton published his discoveries so much later than he discovered them?

Principia was completed in 1686 and published in 1687, but he discovered calculus, gravity and laws of motion long before (1665-1666 "Year of Wonders").Is this correct? He wrote book Method ...
22flower's user avatar
  • 183
3 votes
1 answer
617 views

What did Gauss think about infinite?

Did Gauss think that the size of infinite was incomparable? Or did he leave some opinions about infinity or infinitesimals? Did he have any letters or unpublished research materials that can tell us ...
gaussianbonjuir's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
205 views

What year was Navier-Stokes equations introduced?

In this video he is explaining what are Navier-Stokes equations. As I find these equations are evolution of Euler equations. In this article they choose 1822. Do yo agree with this? Who and when first ...
22flower's user avatar
  • 183
0 votes
1 answer
48 views

What means dual dating at cover page of Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica?

On cover page of Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica write two years, Julii 5, 1686 and "Anno MDCLXXXVII(1687)". What these two years represent?
22flower's user avatar
  • 183
2 votes
1 answer
180 views

What does Dijkstra mean with his title "on the cruelty of really teaching computing science"?

That's EWD 1036. What does he mean by "really teaching"? And also, what is the cruelty implied in "really teaching" it? The title is a bit obscure after you read his paper. Such ...
user21157's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
131 views

Who was Riemann's most admired mathematician?

And is there any historical information for that? For example, a letter from Riemann saying that he admires someone the most?
pololist's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
92 views

Why is Einstein summation named after Einstein?

Why is Einstein summation of tensors (summation of repeated indices) named after Einstein? "Einstein rule" in the Encyclopedia of Mathematics only says: This rule was proposed by A. ...
Geremia's user avatar
  • 5,371
1 vote
0 answers
99 views

Grothendieck's Fine Topology in Esquisse d’un programme

I would like to clarify a couple points in the following excerpt from these notes (page 3) discussing Grothendieck's seminal Esquisse d’un programme pointing out the importance to reformalize the ...
user267839's user avatar
21 votes
5 answers
3k views

I want to know the tricks to search for and find old academic journals for free

In the research of scientific and mathematical history, efficient skills in searching for and accessing old academic journals (preferably for free) are essential. However, even when using platforms ...
enjin2000's user avatar
  • 415
1 vote
0 answers
79 views

Is the first paper attempting to apply Hilbert space theory to quantum mechanics in 1926 Germany available for free online?

I would like to view the quantum mechanics paper "Über die Jacobischen Transformationen der Quantenmechanik," published in Germany in 1926 by Fritz Wolfgang London. The reference is Z. Phys. ...
enjin2000's user avatar
  • 415
3 votes
3 answers
288 views

Was such advanced content on set theory taught in American elementary schools back in 1965?

The image attached is a comic strip from "Peanuts," dating back to 1965. It portrays Sally, the younger sister of Charlie Brown, throwing a tantrum over learning set theory in elementary ...
enjin2000's user avatar
  • 415
1 vote
0 answers
81 views

Is Gauss’ nickname really ‘The Prince of Mathematics’?

As far as I know, Gauss's nickname comes from the phrase GEORGIVS V REX HANNOVERAE MATHEMATICORVM PRINCIPI, which was the phrase on the medal the King of Hanover awarded Gauss after his death. I ...
sadsalk's user avatar
  • 21
4 votes
1 answer
1k views

Gauss has proven FTA several times. Are any of Gauss's FTA proofs considered rigorous in modern mathematics?

Gauss has proven FTA several times. Are any of Gauss's FTA proofs considered rigorous in modern mathematics? Or is it that, despite many proofs, there is not a single one that can be considered modern ...
Guess's user avatar
  • 41
0 votes
0 answers
35 views

non-integer candela measurements and candela manipulation

What was the oldest way to quantify or measure candelas or control it as as an independent variable (luminous intensity)?
Coo's user avatar
  • 131
3 votes
0 answers
76 views

What is the oldest way to measure the voltage?

What is the oldest way to measure the voltage? I mean the experimental way or apparatus.
Coo's user avatar
  • 131
0 votes
0 answers
83 views

Source of Galileo quote on curves

In George Simmons' Calculus Gems there is an interesting quote, supposedly from Galileo, pertaining to whether one can compare curved and straight lines (in length, for instance): Who is so blind as ...
kcrisman's user avatar
  • 111
4 votes
1 answer
222 views

Why is the Riemann conjecture called the Riemann hypothesis?

Wikipedia’s “List of conjectures” page lists 128 mathematical conjectures. All conjectures are called “conjecture” except two: Riemann hypothesis and Schinzel’s hypothesis. I think there is a ...
zeynel's user avatar
  • 307
-2 votes
1 answer
96 views

Does Lagrange's FTA proof meet rigorous requirements even by modern standards?

I know that Gauss pointed out flaws in Euler and d'Alembert's FTA proof when he submitted the FTA proof as a doctoral thesis in 1799, but I don't think I've ever seen any mention of Lagrange, so I'm ...
Lag's user avatar
  • 1
0 votes
1 answer
126 views

Why did Grothendieck think that Deligne was more talented than him? [closed]

Was it just a sign of humility? Or was his idea of ​​‘talent’ a bit different from the general realm? And did Grothendieck regret that he could not solve the last part of the Weil conjecture?
olipo's user avatar
  • 35

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