17

I do not know how exactly was this picture made, but there are at least two methods. The first one is to compute this potential (which is not too difficult), plot sufficiently many points and connect them by smooth curves. This was still quite common in pre-computer era, in 1970s when a special drawing tool was used, in the shape of a curved ruler of ...


13

Adding to Alexandre's answer. My father, educated in the 1930s, used a set of "French curves" like this Secondly ... perhaps the picture in the post was not drawn by Maxwell himself, but by a professional technical artist.


8

A Google scan of Fleury's article "Deux problèmes de géométrie de situation" can be found here, and identifies the author as "M. Fleury, chef d'institution", where "M." is the abbreviation for "Monsieur" in French literature of that time. Interestingly, per the introductory sentence, Fleury's article is inspired by the ...


6

Page 169 of his 1829 paper. It arises as the simplest example of a function for which his proof of Fourier’s theorem fails (because it’s not integrable): It would remain for us to consider the case where the suppositions we have made upon the number of breaks of continuity and upon that of the maxima and minima values cease to hold. (...) One would have ...


5

I don't know, but Images of earth from outside had been made for more than 500 years. A globe of the Earth would seem to count as a "depiction of any kind". The sphericity of the Earth was established by Greek astronomy in the 3rd century BC, and the earliest terrestrial globe appeared from that period. The earliest known example is the one ...


5

It belonged to both. For example, the most important work on PDE in 19th century was arguably Fourier's Analytic theory of heat. You don't have to read the book, to conclude that this was applied mathematics, just from the title. Other important work on PDE, comes from pure mathematics (differential geometry for example), or the work of Liouville on the ...


2

History of the modern definition of function is long and very complicated. It begins with a discussion between Euler, Bernoulli and d'Alembert related to what was later called Fourier series. The modern definition evolved only by the middle 19 century and is usually credited to Dirichlet. He gave this example to illustrate his definition. For the whole ...


1

I encountered an insightful article that may address the origins of Veblen's work. Here is an excerpt: A number of economists and other social scientists have addressed evolutionary explanations. There is a large and valuable literature that considers how humans have evolved in groups and how human propensities for altruism and cooperation have emerged, ...


1

P.199-206 of Schlesinger's treatise about Gauss's analytic work give the answer. This section, entitled "Anniversary letter Plan of a treatise on convergence of series", deals with mathematical themes that occupied Gauss in the last years of his life (the years 1849 - 1855), and includes a discussion of his last proof of the fundamental theorem of the ...


1

I suggest to start with Morris Kline's "Mathematical Thought from Ancient to Modern Times". A valuable source is also Felix Klein's "Development of Mathematics in the 19th Century".


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