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28

My impression is that German never was "THE language of science" in the same sense as English in now. After the switch from Latin to modern languages, there was no single dominating language of science. Up to the middle 20-s century there were at least 4 common languages of science: French, German, English and Italian. Let me state more precisely what I ...


25

One reason is geography: German is spoken in the middle of Europe and contains - or is close to - many eminent academic cities. Germany was not a homogeneous country (like e.g. France) before 1871, but a collection of small dynastic states, which were culturally quite diverse. The protestant part of Germany had a strict work ethic and there was also a ...


22

The change from Latin to German wasn't instantaneous. True, Galileo was one of the first to break the mold and write in his native language, but he used Italian, not German. Newton, too, used English (though, admittedly, also a lot of Latin). There doesn't appear to be a sudden shift to German around this time period. The change was gradual. As the article ...


16

I do not think the following is true: Why is it so hard for many white scholars and writers of today to acknowledge that Ancient African Mathematicians played a very important role in the development of mathematics. Mathematicians of north Africa, what is present day Egypt, Tunisia (old Carthage), Algeria and Morocco are widely and readily ...


13

I would say that no area of mathematics has ever been completely abandoned. The areas go in and out of fashion, but nothing seems to be completely abandoned. For example, approximately in 1940's most mainstream mathematical journals stopped to consider papers on elementary geometry. But the area is not abandoned in any way. First of all, there are "non-...


10

Let's first mention that the popular myth that Nobel decided not to fund a prize for mathematicians because his wife was cheating on him with a mathematician (often said to be Gösta Mittag-Leffler) is (predictably) not true. In fact, it's trivially false since Nobel was never married! Furthermore, in the correspondence between him and his lover, there is no ...


10

Looking at a brief history of communication and your post it seems that there were disputes because who originally published the discovery was easily disputable. The fact that there was a steady decline in such disputes was due to improving communication technology AND standard publishing practices. As to the point of using an anagram while publishing. ...


9

The notion of "rigged data" evolved with time. Some ancient scientists are accused (by modern scientists) in rigging of the data. One notable example is Ptolemy. I do not want to discuss here the accusation of Ptolemy by Robert Newton, but here is another well-known example. In his Optics, Ptolemy gives a table of refraction. It looks like he measured ...


9

African mathematicians are acknowledged in history. What is true is that most of the African mathematicians that are acknowledged are North Africans. That's because Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, etc. are on the "southern rim" of the Mediterranean, and was therefore part of the "classical" world of southern Europe and the Middle East. It is also true that ...


8

Geometry I'm not sure you can really call geometry abandoned, but it certainly was much more popular a few hundred years ago (discovery of spherical geometry and hyperbolical geometry, parallel axiom debate) and a few thousand years ago (the old Greeks developed a lot of geometry). Nowadays, there are very few papers about just plain Euclidean geometry (or ...


8

Plagiarism was a concern already in antiquity. In the preface to On Spirals Archimedes mentions that he was sending Alexandrians statements of his latest theorems, but some had claimed them as their own. Then on occasion he included two false ones "so that those who claim to discover everything, but produce no proofs of the same, may be confuted as having ...


7

You probably mean referees, those who referee papers for the journals. ("Reviewers" is the usual name for those who write the reviews for Math reviews or for Zentralblatt Math. They are payed small amounts per review.) Some journals do pay to the referees. For example, Indiana University Math journal used to offer $50 per report, I don't know whether this ...


7

I cannot name a person. But I can describe what probably happened. (My PhD adviser, A. Goldberg was one of the authors of the second volume (1958-1967), and he told me the story). At some point, this publication was criticized by the people who stood much higher in the Soviet hierarchy than the editorial board. Such decisions were usually made secretly by ...


6

This answer is a bit off because it is not about entire work written in Latin, but until 2012 (with the 'Melbourne' Code of Botanical Nomenclature), it was still required for new species of plants to be described in latin (not just the name but the full diagnosis). As for the zoological nomenclature, it was still common to describe new species in latin until ...


5

In the early and mid-20th century in Anglo-American higher education, exceptions of this sort occurred for individuals who showed that they could hold their own in elite academic circles. An example in addition to Wittgenstein and Ramsey is Garrett Birkhoff. After receiving a BA at Harvard in 1932 and then spending some time at Cambridge, he returned to ...


4

Absence of evidence is poor evidence, particular when the absence is limited to Wikipedia, and shown to be false by information contained in the question itself. But ignoring those small issues, Wikipedia has two articles: New Latin and Contemporary Latin These seem to try to include all major works in Latin for their period (though Peano 1889 is ...


4

This web page by Sean Carroll seems to have some relevant information. Einstein was visiting the US in 1933 when Hitler was elected chancellor, and he lived in the US from then on. Because he was in the US, he switched to publishing in American journals. The dispute that Daniel refers to in comments appears to have been a 1936 dispute with Physical Review, ...


4

Related question: "What is the history of scientific Latin?" This answer to that question has a very nice quote by Gauss discussing his Latin: From G. Waldo Dunnington's 2004 biography of Gauss, Carl Friedrich Gauss: Titan of Science, p. 37-8: … Of unusual interest is the part which Meyerhoff⁶ took in this book [sc. Gauss's most important ...


4

Here some early papers, listed in chronological order: Sterling TD (1959) Publication Decisions and Their Possible Effects on Inferences Drawn from Tests of Significance--Or Vice Versa. Journal of the American Statistical Association 54: 30–34. Rosenthal R (1979) The file drawer problem and tolerance for null results. Psychological Bulletin 86: 638–641. ...


3

To my understanding, the main factor is that in 1970-1980-th the Universities, learned societies, and other non-profit organizations gave up on the journal business. Most existing journals were taken over by big businesses, and competition from non-profit organizations vanished. This permitted the publishers to raise prices. The business became profitable (...


3

Possible sources : Alan Cobban, The Medieval Universities: Their Development and Organization (1975) and Alan Cobban, English University Life In The Middle Ages (1999). More general : History of Universities Series directed by Mordechai Feingold


2

I believe that in the 1930s, peer-review was mostly done directly by editors-as-peers. This belief is based on this letter by Albert Einstein to the Physical Review, 1936: Dear Sir, We (Mr. Rosen and I) had sent you our manuscript for publication and had not authorized you to show it to specialists before it is printed. I see no reason to address the in ...


2

This "oversight" of Mr. Nobel's was rectified in 1980 by the Crafoord Prize in mathematics. Now that there is such a prize, it's unlikely that the Nobel Committee will create another one for mathematics, even though the Crafoord Prize is much less well known, Mr. Nobel not only created the prizes, but selected the Swedish academies to award them (except for ...


2

Another example is the study of configurations; its history is given in §1.2 of Branko Grünbaum's Configurations of Points and Lines, Graduate Studies in Mathematics volume 103, American Mathematical Society, 2009. Broadly, this area of combinatorics, though not defined in full generality until 1876 by Theodor Reye, encompasses work of Pappus and Desargues. ...


2

I suppose the prime example would be classical invariant theory (CIT), although agreeing with Alexander, and despite exaggerated news of its death it had some bursts of revival recently. It is interesting to note that in the 19th century this subject was almost inseparable from classical elimination theory (CET). There has been a revival of CIT without CET (...


2

A brief nubbin of an answer, but I think neglected by other answers: Bismarck's big centralized push to subsidize science and industry, in order to overtake Britain in such, in particular (and perhaps also France, et al). This is similar to the U.S.'s NSF-and-other strong federal subsidization of "hard science" after WWII, both because "the bomb won the war"...


1

German physics and the Journal "Poggendorff's Annalen" contributed to German becoming a scientific language in circa 1840s. From Jungnickel & McCormmach's Second Physicist: On the History of Theoretical Physics in Germany (2017), "Chapter 6: Physics Research in “Poggendorff’s Annalen” in the 1840s," "§6.1 Foreign Recognition of German Physics," pp. 137-...


1

One more slightly different claim is also that Nobel was not in good terms with Mittag Lefler and when he asked someone if a Nobel in math could ever go to Lefler, the person said yes and so Nobel striked off math from his list (which again some claimed contained math as one of the subjects). But the most logical explanation that has ever been put forward ...


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