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All these assessments about "cradle of civilization" are based on the archeological records that reached us and on surviving texts. The oldest surviving samples of writing come from Mesopotamia (Sumer) and Egypt. There was a long discussion whether writing was invented in these regions independently or there was some transmission. As I understand, ...


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Based on the discussion of Eratosthenes' method in Daniel Ć pelda's Astronomie v Antice (Astronomy in Antiquity, ISBN 80-7225-210-0), the distance of 5000 stadia was estimated by Eratosthenes based on the time traders took to travel between the cities. A round value was used, similar to other values Eratosthenes used in his computation, suggesting that even ...


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