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From "Queries and Answers," Isis 41, no. 2, linked to by sand1 in the comments above, we see that the proof of the sphericity of the earth based on the fact that the masts of a distant ship are visible above the horizon when the body of the ship is no longer visible ...has been attributed to Aristotle in De Caelo, but it does not appear there. It does, ...


4

I dug up some text from a translation of "on the heavens." There are similar disputes about the shape of the earth. Some think it is spherical, others that it is flat and drum-shaped. For evidence they bring the fact that, as the sun rises and sets, the part concealed by the earth shows a straight and not a curved edge, whereas if the earth were ...


3

Historians believe that the extant version of Problemata was not penned by Aristotle personally, but “while the Problemata is not the genuine Aristotelian work, it nevertheless contains an element derived from such a work”. Problemata XXXII.5 discusses breathing under water, including the oft quoted passage interpreted as referring to a diving bell:”Why do ...


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For Aristotle : Problemata Book XXXII, 960b,30-31 : “divers to respire equally well by letting down a cauldron”. Parts of Animals, Book II, 659a,5 : “Some divers, when they go down into the sea, provide themselves with a breathing-machine, by means of which they can inhale the air from above the surface while they remain for a long time in the water.” For ...


1

Much of the ancient transmission went through Greece. Astronomical (and other) knowledge was transmitted from Egypt to Greece at least by the time of early Pythagoreans (c. 500 BC), likely earlier. According to some sources, Pythagoras and Democritus visited Egypt personally to study with the priests. There might have been some early transmission from ...


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Here are some Roman Denari. Moon and stars. Looks like points on the stars.


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The sentiments you are describing are most likely those attributed to Plato. Although not primarily a mathematician, Plato is the figure who is credited with drawing the distinction between pure and applied mathematics - drawing a line between the theoretical and the computational aspects of mathematics, and instilling this in his followers. According to ...


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