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Edmund Busche was killed on the Western Front in WW1, on May 2, 1916. This was reported by his colleague Paul Riebesell in the annual report of the German Mathematical Society: Jahresbericht der Deutschen Mathematiker-Vereinigung, Vol. 25, 1917, p. 283 (Google snippet) E. Busche † Von P. Riebesell in Hamburg Am 2. Mai 1916 fiel als Hauptmann der Landwehr a....

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I have not been able to find any primary sources that confirm that Gerwien's first name was Paul. Gerwien published two papers in Crelle's "Journal für die reine und angewandte Mathematik", where he is listed in the table of contents as P. Gerwien. High-quality scans of both these publications are available from the Göttingen Digitization Center. P....

3

Laplace in 1799 introduced velocity dependence in a particular way, modifying the inverse square law so that the force was directed towards the position retarded according to the relative velocity $v$ and the distance was computed accordingly. The consequence of that was that the correction to the Newtonian force was of the order $v/c$, and, according to ...

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Heisenberg's "attitude" about the wave formulation of QM is vastly exaggerated. By 1929 he was lecturing in great detail on Schrödinger's equation at the University of Chicago, and next year he published his classic introductory book The Physical Principles of the Quantum Theory covering it extensively. He understood that, as the virtual initiator ...

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I have compiled some answers to my question here: Neutrinos and neutrettos. The history is indeed complex, but a lot of credit must be given to Sakata and Inoue, who published in 1942 a paper on a theory involving two mesons and two neutrinos. It was translated into English and published here in 1946: Shoichi Sakata and Takesi Inoue, On the correlations ...

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Nobody in particular, it was what is called "folklore". The idea came up naturally when muon decay was observed by several groups in 1948, see Anicin's The Neutrino - Its Past, Present and Future: "When in 1948 the electron spectrum from muon decay was found to be continuous it became obvious that not one but two neutrinos are emitted along ...

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