The man is Paul Erdős. As pointed out by the OP in the comments, his "nomadic" lifestyle is briefly mentioned in the Brown Numbers - Numberphile video, 3.05-3.30. It is also concisely described in Currey's book Daily Rituals read in this YouTube video that refers to Hoffman's popular biography The Man Who Loved Only Numbers, which is featured in ...
Adrien Baillet La vie de M. Descartes vol.1 Ch.11, p. 146 (year 1626) in google books
M. De Sainte Croix was another distinguished arithmetician, but even
more - an intimate friend of M. Descartes. I believe that he is the same one
that we find called by other people André Jumeau, who was prior of the
Sainte Croix (Holy Cross), and who had been tutor to M. ...
The resemblance is not superficial. There is a precise relation between computer programs and formal proofs known as the Curry–Howard correspondence that took shape in 1960s. And Godel's results on proof length were a direct inspiration for speed-up theorems starting with Blum's 1967 result, see Dawson, The Godel Incompleteness Theorem from a Length-of-Proof ...
Emanuel Lasker is better known as a world chess champion, but he was a mathematician too. David Hilbert was one of his doctoral advisors and he published at least four mathematical articles. And he also wrote a drama, Vom Menschen die Geschichte (together with his brother Berthold), as well as several philosophical books.
The forgotten mathematical legacy of Peano
Volume 537 / 2019
Szymon Dolecki, Gabriele H. Greco Dissertationes Mathematicae 537 (2019), 1-77 MDOI: 10.4064/dm769-4-2018 Published online: 28 February 2019 (free download)
Actually, Peano did much more original work than that. Among other things, he
gave the modern definition of vector spaces and linear maps;
defined the first space-filling curve;
stated and proved the Peano existence theorem (on the existence of solutions to certain initial value problems); and
developed the logical notation that would be later used by ...