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See: Alan Turing, Collected works: Mathematical Logic (R.O. Gandy & C.E.M. Yates editors, 2001). [page 10, regarding Turing's paper On computable numbers... (1937)] It should be remarked that there is no evidence that Turing had read any of the scanty and sporadic literature concerned with the general theory of mechanical computation. In particular, ...


6

This is exactly what is happening in modern mathematics: people with some books and brain discover essential things that have never been discovered, such as Euclid, Thales and Pythagoras did in the past. In Geometry as well as in other areas of mathematics. And most of these people use computers only to write e-mails and to check their bank accounts). Type ...


5

Digital devices were quite common since 19th century, they were called cash registers: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cash_register Many shops were equipped with them. Similar device for scientific/engineering purposes was called arithmometer, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arithmometer In 1970s I was solving PDE's with this arithmometer: https://ru....


5

1, To keep secret the level of expertise in cryptanalysis so future opponents wouldn't put effort into improving their own codes. Probably pointless because it was inevitable that some details of Bletchley would leak to the USSR, in the same way as secrets of the Manhattan project. And probably equally pointless in that, although every side in WWII broke ...


4

There were several layers of craft technology now partly superseded by pdflatex and friends. There were author's instructions for marking up manuscripts with type font indications, there were technical typists adept at using special math symbol shapes with their modified typewriters, there were Monotype operators who ran typesetting machines from the marked ...


3

Javascript is older than Flash and ActiveX. Originally, it was developed by the Sun, as the "small cousine" of the Java. The "World Wide Web" was originally developed only for static content without client-side dynamical behaviors, and with only zero to little server-side dynamical content. Javascript became capable to replace Flash & ActiveX only ...


3

I did a bit of snooping, and followed the Wikipedia link you named to another subsection, which states International Algebraic Language and ALGOL (1958 and 1960) therefore introduced ":=" for assignment, leaving the standard "=" available for equality, a convention followed by CPL, Algol W, BCPL, Simula, Algol 68, SETL, Pascal, Smalltalk, Modula2, Ada, ...


2

One incredible discovery of the 1800s was that when you speak of geometry, you need to specify "where your geometry is located" and specifically what constitutes points and lines. At the time this was applied to obtain Hyperbolic Geometry and Elliptic Geometry. Recently, the field of Finite Geometry has become the subject of much foundational research. ...


2

My theoretical physics papers and thesis were written by hand, then typed on an IBM "golf ball" typewriter. The golf ball was so called because the type head was about the same size as a golf ball. The type heads were interchangeable with different fonts and symbols. Corrections were made using tippex. 40 years later, I'm still amazed at the skill of the ...


2

Regarding the algorithmic conception of the mind: Von Neumann definitely regarded human intelligence as algorithmic. He may not have known how the brain/computer worked exactly, but it's a reasonable assumption that it involves procedures and memory, which are analogous to the way computers function. There has been much resistance to this idea, making ...


1

It has been claimed that the Jaquard Loom (1804) was a digital computer. (But not electronic, of course.) We could even say that it was binary, since on the punched cards that control it, in each locaton on the card there was either a hole or not. Then there were music boxes driven by clockwork, where the notes where controlled by holes punched in a metal ...


1

After a little bit of research, I think the answer is that the turn counter works the way it does to support division and division would not function as intended if the turn counter carried. "Subtractive" multiplication is not well supported because it would make division less intuitive. This video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aDN4s8ElxqE shows an ...


1

Radio navigation was used on a large scale during the "Battle of Britain" in WWII, to direct the fighter planes to the enemy bomber formations. Of course, they experimented much earlier than that, even during WWI, but practical use on a large scale started during WWII. See Wikipedia article "Radio navigation".


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I think the resources listed above are good background references but if you want to know how logic was introduced to actual electronic equipment then consider Claude Shannon. At the age of 21, writing his MIT Master's degree thesis, he laid out the methods of how electrical applications of Boolean logic can carry out any logical or numerical process. This ...


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