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Here is a direct link to Nolte's Tangled Tale of Phase Space on Physics Today. Big takeaways: the name did not come from Liouville's oft-cited 1838 paper, and Boltzmann used "phase" without "space" in the right context back in 1872, and he is the one who fully developed the concept, with a big help from Jacobi's 1842-43 work. Nolte also ...


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Heat equation was first formulated by Fourier in a manuscript presented to Institut de France in 1807, followed by his book Theorie de la Propagation de la Chaleur dans les Solides the same year, see Narasimhan, Fourier’s heat conduction equation: History, influence, and connections. "Diffusion phenomena" were not studied until much later, when ...


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The first mathematician who did this accurately and with all detail was Joseph Fourier. Though he had predecessors. (One can almost never answer the question "who did this first", so on my opinion, it is not even worth asking. "Nothing is new under the Moon", as Ecclesiastes wrote). Fourier wrote a very influential book titled "...


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