15

I would have thought that the first significant propositions for this would have perhaps come around the beginning of the 20th century, maybe. I would think it was quite a bit later. Victor Goldschmidt published his classification of elements as siderophile, chalcophile, lithophile, or atmophile in the late 1920s. This marked the beginning of modern ...


14

Two primary reasons come to mind: At the time the crust appeared solid, and the mantle was not known to be fluid and convecting (although plastic deformation is implied by isostasy). Moving solid rock through solid rock was too strange a concept - especially without a fluid mantle. "Continental Drift" had no mechanism. Why did the continents appear to move? ...


13

Science fiction author Arthur C. Clarke is often credited with the idea of communication satellites. link That was in 1945, long before any artificial satellite had been launched in reality.


12

As it turns out, it was already known by some philosophers from the 1200s that certain types of rocks naturally tend to rotate to point north. However, they had no idea why: For instance, it was generally thought that compas needles were attracted by the Pole Star. Some more serious work on compasses (e.g. discovering the 'magnetic dip') was first done by ...


11

The area of knowledge separates itself from philosophy as soon as a reliable method of obtaining exact knowledge in this area is invented. Thus mathematics separated from philosophy at its very beginning. In astronomy, there was an area covered by exact knowledge (based on observations) and another, speculative part. As exact knowledge expanded, the ...


9

Wikipedia notes that many ancients believed that there were hollowed-out areas underground, where places such as Hell (or the underworld in general, hence the underworld) existed. But these weren't really "Hollow Earth" theories. We didn't get that far until a few hundred years ago. This attributes the modern Hollow-Earth hypothesis to Edmund Halley, the ...


9

Based on what I've read in Stephen Jay Gould, The Structure of Evolutionary Theory, Cambridge MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2002, I would assume that, in fact, the intellectual conflict was the opposite of what you propose. Darwin's variant of natural selection is founded in Lyell's theory of gradualism. That is, it assumed that ...


8

One such case comes to my mind: Jules Verne's novel Green ray (1882). Jules Verne popularized this rare phenomenon, and it seems that it has not been scientifically studied before. After Jules Verne novel, the green ray has been photographed and explained. See Wikipedia "Green flash" where there is a list of literature (Jules Verne included!).


8

Cox et al. 1964 gives a good account on the different steps of how this discovery was made. The most important first step was to acknowledge the fact that some rocks (namely magmatic rocks) acquired a remanent magnetism based on the magnetic field in which they were "cooked" (Brunhes 1906). Followed observations of different directions in remanent magnetism ...


8

What happened is that Tertiary/Quaternary were dropped first, together, by the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS) formally in 2004 (see Gradstein et al. 2004a for instance, along with the 2004 edition of "A geological timescale", Gradstein et al 2004b) but then Quaternary was reinstated as a formal Period in 2009. Geowhen database has a nice ...


6

The first place I looked, Wikipedia, gave a fairly good answer. The term dates back to the 19th century, but it first came it to use in the current context only about 50 years ago, when Frederick Vine and Drummond Matthews used it to represent the formation of new crust at the oceanic ridge and its subsequent symmetric spreading away from that ridge. ...


6

While it may not be research exactly, the fictional cases of Sherlock Holmes did actually influence the way real world police agencies and detectives approached forensic science. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle wrote about Holmes using fingerprint identification roughly 10 years before the police started to rely on it. Also, Holmes did a lot of soil analysis ...


6

Aristotle's idea of earthquakes caused by "winds within the Earth" had much currency for centuries, if they were ascribed to natural causes at all. Here is from Agnew's History of Seismology on the prevailing thought in the 17-18th centuries: "With the decline of Aristotelian thought in early modern Europe, other ideas were put forward, ...


6

Wikipedia gives no examples of written mentions from ancient times because there are none. And by the time written records arrive what they record is not really "discovered". Ancient seafarers likely did have operational knowledge of ocean currents, i.e. they made use of them, but they left nothing in writing about it, at least nothing that ...


5

Wikipedia has a good list of such maps. The first one for me that shows the continents roughly as we see today (Minus Antarctica) seems to be the Kunyu Wanguo Quantu 1602 map, included below, which is only missing Australia and Antarctica, plus a fair bit of the North American continent. Another candidate, included below, is the Orbis Terrarum 1658 map which ...


5

There can be no doubt that the the most "mature" observational science is astronomy. Whatever is the exact meaning of "mature". First, it is the oldest science among all exact sciences. There was no physics to talk about, (not speaking of chemistry biology, geology) when astronomy was already quite mature. Second, astronomy makes predictions. Very precise ...


5

I often say the following, especially to philosophers. Philosophy is the study of problems which cannot be solved. As soon as a problem can be solved, it moves to the science faculty. But one philosopher told me that at least in ethics, philosophers (i.e. philosophers in the academic/university system) do solve problems. Well, I can't agree with that. ...


5

You're not going to believe this, but it turns out that the guy behind this was none other than Harold Urey (Yes, the Harold Urey of the Miller-Urey experiment!). He made the discovery of the correlation sometime in the 1950s, and with his nuclear background, he was well aware of the properties of isotopes. He studied small ancient fossilized creatures ...


5

To explain seasons you do not need a precise measurement of the inclination of the ecliptic, it is sufficient to know the fact. I suppose that this fact was known to the first people who started agriculture, that is more than 12 thousand years ago. Indeed, agriculture strongly depends on the change of seasons. You have to know when to plant your plants for ...


4

It appears to be part of the reason the Tertiary Period was dropped. Looking at the Wikipedia page on the Paleogene, By dividing the Tertiary Period into two periods instead of directly into five epochs, the periods are more closely comparable to the duration of 'periods' in the Mesozoic and Paleozoic Eras. The page on the Neogene says much the same ...


4

Paul Krugman's research was caused by Isaac Azimov's Foundation novels. (For this answer, you have to accept economics as a science and you have to accept "caused scientists to do real research" in the sense of motivating them to do it.) From his interview, December 2008, on the Nobel website. (Yes, yes, I know, the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic ...


4

Israel in the 60's: these experiments were probably from Gerald Stanhill (one of the discovers of global dimming). The "tubs" were probably class A evaporation pans (a fancy name for tubs!). Some of his publications on this topic include: The control of field irrigation practice from measurements of evaporation (1962) The use of Class A ...


3

The Alcubierre drive concept. Miguel Alcubierre published his first and only paper on the concept while still a PhD student, stating that he drew inspiration from the Star Trek television series. (See the associated tab on the Wiki link.)


3

As a second answer to the main question, I just remembered that logic is an "outlier" as a subject which used to lie inside the philosophy department because of Aristotle's "Logic" book. (Philosophy used to cover all of the topics written about by Aristotle and Plato.) But then logic moved into mathematics, more or less, from about 1890 up to about 1965, ...


2

First, a correction: This despite his understanding and description of isostasy and the less dense continents floating on the heavy basaltic crust, and despite his measurements of the yearly separation of Greenland from continental Europe. The less dense continents do not float on the heavy basaltic crust. Instead, both the continental crust and oceanic ...


2

When I was taught celestial navigation and the art of using a sextant at sea, we learned to take two sightings at sunset: first when the lower limb of the sun met the horizon, and the second for the upper limb. Sometimes one or the other is obscured by clouds; taking both gives two chances at a measurement. But there is an additional advantage to sighting ...


2

Such beliefs existed in various solar mythologies, see e.g. Sun Lore of All Ages, by William Tyler Olcott, [1914], (available at sacred-texts.com): The Romans actually believed that the sun was the wheel of Apollo's chariot. Each morning the god rose from the eastern sea, and drove his four spirited steeds across the sky, and in the evening he descended ...


2

I am not able to give a complete answer to your question and admit that I do not really understand what Copernicus is saying, but give this as background information: The notion that the proportion of water to earth in the cosmos is 7 : 1 goes back to Averoes (Ibn Rushd) in his Shorter Commentary to Aristotle’s Meteorology, with decidedly specious arguments. ...


1

I think here "center of magnitude" simply means the geometric center (center of the sphere). If it did not coincide with the center of gravity, the ocean surface would be different from from the surface of the solid part. The argument seems to be closely related to Archimedes, On floating bodies, Section II, where Archimedes proves that the surface of the ...


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