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28

To begin, let's start with a very apropos anecdote from Lorentz himself. At a conference on the Michelson–Morley experiment in 1927 at which Lorentz and Michelson were present, Michelson suggested that Lorentz was the initiator of the theory of relativity. Lorentz then replied: “I considered my time transformation only as a heuristic working hypothesis....


21

A good account is Weinstein, Max Born, Albert Einstein and Hermann Minkowski's Space-Time Formalism of Special Relativity. They did no have much of a relationship, what it was is well-summarized by Sommerfeld: "Strangely enough no personal contacts resulted between his teacher of mathematics, Hermann Minkowski, and Einstein. When, later on, Minkowski ...


20

Einstein himself told the story in his Kyoto address of 1922, which I quote from Pais's biography titled Subtle is the Lord: "If all systems are equivalent, then Euclidean geometry cannot hold in all of them. To throw out geometry and keep laws is equivalent to describing thoughts without words. We must search for words before we can express thoughts. ...


15

Unlike Einstein, Planck did not quantize electromagnetic waves themselves, only the exchanged energies, and even them only statistically. So the other two questions have no satisfactory answer because he was not dealing with specifics of emission/absorption at the level of individual quanta. The quanta were meant as mathematical fictions for the purposes of ...


13

It seems not. See: A.Douglas Stone, Einstein and the quantum: The quest of the valiant Swabian (2013): [page 6] Planck was the first major figure to recognize Einstein’s seminal 1905 work on relativity theory, and he became Einstein’s greatest champion in the world of science and one of his closest personal friends. [page 83] [Einstein's 1905 paper ...


12

The time when experimental evidence supporting relativity began to appear coincided with the rise of antisemitism in Germany following Germany's defeat in WWI. Antisemitism was on the rise in Germany; Jews were being scapegoated for the country's defeat in the war. As both Jew and pacifist, Einstein was an obvious target. The complexity of relativity ...


12

I am not sure what "explain it like a story" means, but the Bohr–Einstein debates is perhaps the most dramatic story of Einstein making his dissatisfaction known. Pais's scientific biography of Einstein Subtle is the Lord offers an even more comprehensive story of his life and the genesis of his philosophical outlook. As for the main reason for his ...


10

I am afraid, you are overprojecting the power and the glory of peer review. Although some instances can be cited as early as 17th century, it only became what it is today with the triumph of publish or perish in mid 20th, see How did "publish or perish" become the scientific priority rule? Concerning Einstein's papers specifically see Hate the ...


8

The story is genuine. Isaacson retells it in his scientific biography Einstein: His Life and Universe based on recollections of his younger sister Maja, along with other evidence that dispels the early "Einstein was a slow starter and flanked school" story exaggerated by his parents: "His uncle Jakob Einstein, the engineer, introduced him to the joys of ...


7

Not sure about "elementary" but, at least, he tried to reduce it to "the simplest and most intelligible form". He assumes the level of a graduating secondary school student, and warns of the "patience and force of will" required to get through. The linked article refers to the German 1916 publication of Über die spezielle und allgemeine Relativitätstheorie,...


6

Details of Brown's observations, concerning both the pollen and the microscope, are given by Pearle et al. in What Brown saw and you can too. The pollen was from the flower Clarkia pulchella, a.k.a. pinkfairy, ragged robin, or deerhorn clarkia, discovered on the return trip of the Lewis and Clark expedition by Lewis on June 1, 1806. He wrote in his ...


6

There are no published papers where such interpretation is explicitly made. Born's Nobel lecture mention first appears in his celebrated Quantenmechanik der Stossvorgange (1926, Zeitschrift fur Physik 38, 803-827), also with no reference. According to Pais, well-known Einstein's biographer, the inspiration came from Einstein's never published remarks about ...


5

Einstein means : mental images. Some background. A.Einstein answered to a questionnaire issued by the French mathematician Jacques Hadamard regarding "THE WORKING METHODS OF MATHEMATICIANS", originally issued in L'Enseignement Mathematique (1902-1904). Einstein letter is reproduced into : Jacques Hadamard, The Psychology of Invention in the Mathematical ...


5

No. He opposed Quantum Mechanics from the beginning until death. He did it because its inherent non-determinism ("God does not gamble"). In his opinion, the cause of the non-determinism of the QM is that "it is not ready". However, he worked on the further development of the GR until death. A possible direction was to describe also the electromagnetism as ...


5

Einstein did not go against his earlier ideas. The probabilistic rules that the author may be referring to is the use of statistical methods of physics to account for the myriad of particles involved (e.g. as used in kinetic theory and other developments also used by Planck in his earlier work on black body radiation). Rather, from my brief review of the ...


4

Einstein was reading Maxwell. Axiom a) follows from Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light. Axiom b) is stated imprecisely in your message. The actual axiom is that you cannot detect the absolute motion of the observer (or that the laws of nature must be independent of the motion of the observer (rectilinear and with constant speed)). This is the ...


4

Both Einstein and Poincaré postulated the principal of relativity as a basis for their theories. Where Einstein's and Poincaré's theories differ is that Einstein postulated the one-way constancy of the speed of light in inertial frames and derived the Lorentz transformation as a consequence, while Poincaré postulated the Lorentz transformation and derived ...


3

No. Very few people had written computer programs at the time of his death, 1955, and most had backgrounds in numerical analysis, and computational techniques. Programs were written in machine code in those days, or a few newer machines had an assembly language. John von Neumann is a much better candidate for computer programming.


3

You should really read Douglas Stone's "Einstein and the Quantum: The Quest of the Valiant Swabian." It's a brilliant work insofar as Prof. Stone shows precisely how Planck went about deriving the eponymously named Planck's law and why the quantum revolution did not beging with Planck but with Einstein. In the book Prof. Stone (Head of Applied Physics at ...


3

Einstein himself wrote, in a letter of 14 December 1915 to Moritz Schlick, that he was primarily inspired by David Hume and Ernst Mach. According to the paper How Hume and Mach Helped Einstein Find Special Relativity, "It was more Hume than Mach." Quoting from Einstein's letter to Schlick: Your exposition is also quite right that positivism suggested ...


3

I believe the question started being studied in earnest in the 1950s, with formal definition and first results usually attributed to Markus (1955, p. 412) — by, e.g., Hawking in his famous 1966 prize essay (emphasis added): 5.2 Time orientability In our own neighbourhood, there is a clear division of non-spacelike vectors into future- and past-...


3

You can unify some of the forces of nature without unifying others. That's what's happened historically. Maxwell unified electricity and magnetism. In the 1970s we unified the electromagnetic and electroweak forces. Einstein was trying to unify the electromagnetic and gravitational forces. The discovery of forces A and B doesn't imply that we shouldn't try ...


3

It is hard to prove that the answer is negative, but have this in mind: a friend who helped Einstein a lot (and who co-wrote two articles with him) while Einstein was trying to formulate the General Theory of Relativity was Marcel Grossmann, who was a geometer (his PhD thesis was about Non-Euclidean Geometry and he wrote two textbooks on Descriptive Geometry)...


3

Although the concept of the existence of the atoms originates from the ancient Greek, for them it was yet more a philosophical concept, they were very far from any experimental proof.1 Later, mainly the chemistry provided the first suggestion that it might be an experimental fact. However, none of these results was strong enough at the time. In the late ...


2

Einstein, on the contrary, was free of any kind of traditions ... This I think really says a great deal more about the author, his preconceptions, the Einstein hagiographical industry and the fetishisation of a free-floating and heavily romanticised libertarianism in Western culture than about Einstein himself. And I mean romanticism in the technical sense ...


2

Only elementary mathematics is required to formulate and understand Special Relativity as a glance of Einsteins 1905 paper On the Electrodyamics of moving bodies shows, where he put forward the main ideas involved in SR. This is not the case for GR, as Einstein himself was forced to admit. He learned tensorial methods for working with general manifolds from ...


2

I don't think Einstein completely rejected quantum Mechanics, but he did disagree with other people's interpretations and opinions. He said "God does not play dice with the universe." At the subatomic and quark scales of size, God DOES play dice with the Universe. Let's not get diverted into whether ...


2

Einstein's objections to QM are best understood by his famous EPR paper written in 1936. Einstein proposed a thought experiment to determine whether QM was local and real. The locality part is that no signal of information can travel faster than the speed of light. The "Reality" part is that nature (let's say an assemblage of particles) is real even when ...


2

A short answer to the question might be that, after the Nobel award to Einstein in 1922, many people were given the impression that it had been awarded for relativity, and that consequently he received few or no further nominations for any second Nobel prize. I recall seeing a biographical statement to this effect (but can't now locate the reference). What ...


1

There is a monolithic Einstein myth consolidated by scores of popular books which is a great inconvenience for anybody trying to make some sense of the history. Cornifold's answer and refs already point at the main isuue: at first Einstein did not understand and avoided mentioning Minkowski's approach which nevertheless turned to be crucial for his later ...


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