6

It was not "the experiment". First, Newton considered "his" laws to be "common knowledge" already "abundantly" confirmed and accepted by experts (he names Galileo, Wallis, Wren, and Huygens). In Axioms, or Laws of Motion section of Principia, where they are laid down, he writes in particular:"Hitherto I have laid ...


5

No, they did not. Several methods were proposed but they do not give "correct" distances. Of course, all depends on the exact meaning of the word "measure" and "correct". But their estimates were orders of magnitude away from the true numbers. Some details are given here: Historical knowledge of Distance of Earth from Sun and also here the related ...


4

There was no need to measure the intensity directly to determine that the photoeffect is independent of it. One could vary intensity by moving the metal plate closer to or further away from the source. How intensity falls with the distance is well-known. This is what Lenard did in his 1902 experiments that prompted Einstein's 1905 work. If there was a need ...


4

Leon Theremin, born in St. Petersburg, Russia in 1896, was a youthful enthusiast of both music and physics. As a young man working at the Physical Technical Institute in Petrograd, he noticed that something odd happened when he hooked up audio circuits to an electrical device called an oscillator in a certain configuration. The oscillator produced an ...


4

There is probably nothing "flawless" in this world. But mathematicians and physicists indeed took part in the improvement of musical instruments. See, for example Wikipedia article Well temperament which mentions the invention of the musical scale for modern keyboard instruments. Many people, scientists and musicians participated in this ...


3

Sizes and masses were roughly known since Rutherford's 1911 experiments. Gamow references some more precise measurements from 1920s in Mass Defect Curve and Nuclear Constitution. For example, size measurements of Bieler from 1924 and Hardmeier from 1927 for light elements, and of Houtermans with Atkinson and with him from 1928-9 for heavy elements. The data ...


2

According to a biography of Sakharov, his first published paper was in the Journal of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, and 'estimated the cross-section for the production of mesons as the hard components of cosmic rays according to a model proposed by Tamm'


2

Maybe it does not have a direct relationship to your question, but I remember having a teacher in college for a Mechanics course, which developed a musical instrument himself in order to have more bass-sounds in a folk Catalan musical ensemble. Unfortunately, I haven't found any documentation related to it in English. The only information I have found is in ...


1

What was known about the properties of the nucleus (its shape, its density etc) and the nuclear forces before the Liquid drop model was proposed? In 1897 Thomson discovered the negatively charged electron. This prompted a revolution in thinking about the structure of the atom which before then had hardly been theorised. Thomsons discovery suggested that ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible