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Appleyard's paper Pioneers of Electrical Communication part 5 – Heinrich Rudolph Hertz (Electrical Communication, 6 (1927) no.2, pp. 63-77) has a number of photographs of Hertz's experimental devices, including the apparatus he used to study the photoelectric effect in 1887 (Hertz did not use the name) after discovering the influence of light on production ...


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What was known about the properties of the nucleus (its shape, its density etc) and the nuclear forces before the Liquid drop model was proposed? In 1897 Thomson discovered the negatively charged electron. This prompted a revolution in thinking about the structure of the atom which before then had hardly been theorised. Thomsons discovery suggested that ...


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Sizes and masses were roughly known since Rutherford's 1911 experiments. Gamow references some more precise measurements from 1920s in Mass Defect Curve and Nuclear Constitution. For example, size measurements of Bieler from 1924 and Hardmeier from 1927 for light elements, and of Houtermans with Atkinson and with him from 1928-9 for heavy elements. The data ...


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